SELECTED RESOURCES

Works on Central Yup'ik

Hensel, Chase, Marie Blanchett, Ida Alexie, and Phyllis Morrow. 1980. Qaneryaurci Yup'igtun: an Introductory Course in Yup'ik Eskimo for Non-speakers. Bethel: Yup'ik Language Center. 146 pp. [Practical lessons in conversational Yup'ik, with drills.]

Jacobson, Steven. 1984. Yup'ik Eskimo Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. 757 pp. [The first comprehensive dictionary of the language. Yup'ik-to-English with English-to-Yup'ik index, full introduction, and numerous appendices.]

Krauss, Michael E. 1982. Native Peoples and Languages of Alaska. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. [Full-color wall map.]

Mather, Elsie P. 1985. Cauyarnariuq. Bethel, Alaska: Lower Kuskokwim School District.

Miyaoka, Osahito. 1980. "Alaska Native Languages in Transition." In Alaska Native Culture and History, ed. Yoshinobu Kotani and William Workman, Senri Ethnological Studies 4, National Museum of Ethnology, Senri, Osaka, Japan.

Miyaoka, Osahito. 1981. "Grammatical Synopsis of 'Central Yupik' Eskimo." Asian and African Linguistics (Tokyo) 10:1-14. [A good brief summary.]

Miyaoka, Osahito and Elsie Mather. 1979. Yup'ik Eskimo Orthography. Revised edition. Bethel: Yup'ik Language Center. 155 pp. [Systematic practical lessons in spelling Yup'ik, especially for speakers of the language.]

Miyaoka, Osahito, Elsie Mather, and Marie Meade. Forthcoming. Survey of Yup'ik Grammar. Anchorage: University of Alaska Anchorage.

Reed, E. Irene, Osahito Miyaoka, Steven Jacobson, Paschal Afcan, and Michael Krauss. 1977. Yup'ik Eskimo Grammar. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center and Yup'ik Language Workshop. vii + 330 pp. [This grammar of the language is arranged as a two-and-a-half-year college-level course in Yup'ik, with exercises and extensive bibliography of works in the language published before 1977; it is out of print pending completion of a rewritten classroom grammar.]

General Works on Yup'ik Culture

Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 1983. The Nelson Island Eskimo: Social Structure and Ritual Distribution. Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press. 419 pp. [Traditional customs in modern Yup'ik culture.]

Fienup-Riordan, Ann. 1988. The Yup'ik Eskimos: As Described in the Travel Journals and Ethnographic Accounts of John and Edith Kilbuck. Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press.

Fitzhugh, William W. 1982. Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 295 pp. [Based on E. W. Nelson's documentation and artifact collections of early Yup'ik and western Inupiaq culture; heavily illustrated.]

Lantis, Margaret. 1960. Eskimo Childhood and Interpersonal Relationships. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Nelson, Edward W. 1899. The Eskimo About Bering Strait. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report, Vol. 1, pp. 1-518. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. [The finest 19th-century documentation of Yup'ik culture and technology.] Reprinted, Smithsonian Institution, 1983.

Oswalt, Wendell H. 1963a. Mission of Change in Alaska. San Marino: The Huntington Library.

Oswalt, Wendell H. 1963b. Napaskiak, an Alaskan Eskimo Community. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Oswalt, Wendell H. 1967. Alaskan Eskimos. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co. 297 pp. [General anthropological survey concentrating on pre-European-contact culture and technology.]

Zagoskin, Lavrentii A. 1967. Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels in Russian America, 1842-1844. Edited by Henry N. Michael. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. [The earliest major European documentation of Yup'ik culture.]

Vick, Ann, ed. 1983. The Cama-i Book. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books. [Personal history and ways of life, collected by high school students for a Foxfire project.]

Yup'ik Literature

Jacobson, Anna W. 1990. Elnguq. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.

Tennant, Edward A. and Joseph N. Bitar, eds. 1981. Yup'ik Lore: Oral Traditions of an Eskimo People. Bethel: Lower Kuskokwim School District. [A major collection; the transcriptions and English translations were done by Yup'ik staff members.]

Woodbury, Anthony C., ed. 1984. Cev'armiut Qanemciit Qulirait-llu. Narratives and Tales from Chevak, Alaska, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. 80 pp. [Cultural accounts, historical accounts, and traditional stories in Yup'ik and English in bicolumnar format, with extensive introduction.]

Further reading: The Yup'ik Language Center, Kuskokwim Community College, Bethel, AK 99559 has several hundred publications in Yup'ik, mostly elementary-school books, available.

Works on Alutiiq

Birket-Smith, Kaj. 1953. The Chugach Eskimo. Copenhagen: Nationalmuseets Publikationsfond. [A survey of traditional Alutiiq culture and technology, including summaries of traditional stories, based on fieldwork done in the 1930s.]

Leer, Jeff. 1978. A Conversational Dictionary of Kodiak Alutiiq. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. [Introduction to sounds and grammar for the general reader; selective English-to-Alutiiq dictionary with brief entries; Kodiak Island dialect.]

Leer, Jeff. 1978. Nanwalegmiut Paluwigmiut-llu Nupugnerit: Conversational Alutiiq Dictionary. Anchorage: National Bilingual Materials Development Center. [Introduction to sounds and grammar for the general reader; English-to-Alutiiq dictionary with sentence examples; Kenai Peninsula dialect.]

Leer, Jeff. 1991. Classroom Grammar of Koniag Alutiiq, Kodiak Island Dialect. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.

Works on Siberian Yupik

Badten, Linda Womkon, et. al. 1987. A Dictionary of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.

Jacobson, Steven. 1990. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center.

Krauss, Michael E. 1975. "St. Lawrence Island Eskimo Phonology and Orthography." Linguistics 152:39-72. [Description of the sound system and the development of the practical writing system.]

Silook, Roger, et.al. 1983 St. Lawrence Island Junior Dictionary. Anchorage: Materials Development Center. [Arranged by Yupik word, with definitions in both Yupik and English, and sentence examples; much interesting cultural information, both explicit and implicit.]

Other works

Rosten, Leo. 1968. The Joys of Yiddish. New York: McGraw-Hill. [Appreciation of the language of an American ethnic minority.]

Scollon, Ron and Suzanne B. K. Scollon. 1980. Interethnic Communication. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. 42 pp. [Problems in communication between cultures and suggestions for solving them; concentrating on Athabaskan cultures but useful for all such situations.]

 

FURTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION AND ASSISTANCE

Alaska Historical Commission College of Rural Alaska
Old City Hall University of Alaska Fairbanks
524 W. 5th Ave., Suite 207 Fairbanks, AK 99775
Anchorage, AK 99501 (Consultation, instruction)
(Publications, conferences)
Institute of Alaska Native Arts
Alaska Native Language Center P.O. Box 80583
University of Alaska Fairbanks, AK 99708
Fairbanks, AK 99775-0120 (Publications)
(Publications, instruction)
Lower Kuskokwim School District
Alaska Pacific University Press Box 305
Alaska Pacific University Bethel, AK 99559
Anchorage, AK 99504 University of Alaska
(Publications) (Publications, instructional materials)
Alaska State Film Library Oral History Project
650 International Airport Rd. Rasmuson Library
Anchorage, AK 99503 University of Alaska Fairbanks
Fairbanks, AK 99775
Alaska State Library
Pouch G University of Alaska Museum
Juneau, AK 99811 University of Alaska Fairbanks
Fairbanks, AK 99775
Alaska State Museum (Tours, publications, exhibits)
Pouch FM
Juneau, AK 99811 Yup'ik Language Center
(Traveling media kits, publications, Kuskokwim Community College
traveling photographic exhibits) P.O. Box 369
Bethel, AK 99559
(Publications, instruction)

 

DISTRICTS SERVING YUP'IK-SPEAKING STUDENTS

Lower Kuskokwim School District Lake & Peninsula School District
Box 305 Box 498
Bethel, AK 99559-0305 King Salmon, AK 99613
(907) 543-4800 (907) 246-4280
Lower Yukon School District Bering Strait School District
Box 32089 Box 225
Mountain Village, AK 99632-2089 Unalakleet, AK 99684
(907) 591-2449 (907) 624-3611
Southwest Region School District Fairbanks North Star Borough
Box 90 School District
Dillingham, AK 99576 520 Fifth Ave.
(907) 842-5288 Fairbanks, AK 99701
(907) 452-2000
Kuspuk School District
Box 49 Anchorage School District
Aniak, AK 99557 P.O. Box 196614
(907) 675-4250 Anchorage, AK 99519-6614
(907) 333-3322
St. Mary's Public Schools
Box 171
St. Mary's, AK 99658-0171
(907) 438-2311
Dillingham City Schools
Box 170
Dillingham, AK 99576
(907) 842-5225

 

State of Alaska Bilingual Education Enrollments 1991-92

Language

Number of Students, K-12

Yup'ik Eskimo

5,665

Inupiaq Eskimo

2,698

Spanish

809

Filipino

540

Korean

675

St. Lawrence Island (Siberian) Yupik

270

Russian

216

Koyukon Athabaskan

270

Gwich'in (Kutchin) Athabaskan

230

Aleut

230

Other

1,886

Total

13,489

*Student enrollments are derived from School District Reports provided by the Department of Education each school year.

These figures are based on reports from 1991-92.

 

Bilingual/Bicultural Education Programs

State of Alaska, 1987-88
Distribution of Students by School District

 

 

Limited/

 

Language

Speakers

Non-Speakers

Total


Yup'ik Eskimo

 

 

 

Anchorage

11

66

77

Bering Strait

4

194

198

Bristol Bay

 

6

6

Dillingham

16

50

66

Fairbanks

 

7

7

Iditarod

 

15

15

Kuspuk

 

116

116

Lake & Peninsula

 

41

41

Lower Kuskokwim

1,422

484

1,906

Lower Yukon

38

1,219

1,257

Mat-Su

1

2

3

Nome City

 

3

3

Northwest Arctic

 

2

2

Southwest Region

199

285

484

St. Mary's

13

21

34

Yupiit

206

44

250

Total

1,910

2,555

4,465

 

 

 

 

Inupiaq Eskimo

 

 

 

Alaska Gateway

 

2

2

Anchorage

2

31

33

Bering Strait

7

337

344

Fairbanks

3

25

28

Iditarod

 

4

4

Nome City

4

98

102

North Slope

202

403

605

Northwest Arctic

 

1,197

1,197

Yukon Koyukuk

1

 

1

Total

219

2,097

2,316

 

 

 

 

Spanish

 

 

 

Adak

1

 

1

Alaska Gateway

2

4

6

Anchorage

264

191

455

Dillingham

 

1

1

Fairbanks

41

44

85

lditarod

 

2

2

Juneau

12

 

12

Kenai

4

 

4

Ketchikan

1

 

1

Kodiak Island Borough

5

4

9

Mat-Su Borough

3

1

4

Nome City

2

 

2

North Slope

 

1

1

Petersburg

5

 

5

Total

340

248

588

 

 

 

 

Filipino

 

 

 

Adak

5

7

12

Anchorage

161

117

278

Fairbanks

8

13

21

Juneau

12

8

20

Kenai

3

 

3

Ketchikan

14

1

15

Kodiak Island

30

40

70

Nenana

5

 

5

North Slope

1

2

3

Unalaska

3

 

3

Total

242

188

430

 

 

 

 

Korean

 

 

 

Anchorage

221

66

287

Fairbanks

30

16

46

Juneau City & Borough

3

 

3

Kenai

1

 

1

Ketchikan

1

 

1

Kodiak Island Borough

3

1

4

Lower Kuskokwim

2

 

2

Mat-Su Borough

1

 

1

Nome City

 

1

1

Northwest Arctic

 

2

2

Petersburg

7

1

8

Total

269

87

356

 

 

 

 

St. Lawrence Island (Siberian) Yupik

 

 

 

Anchorage

 

2

2

Bering Strait

227

12

239

Nome City

10

17

27

Total

237

31

268

 

 

 

 

Russian

 

 

 

Anchorage

3

2

5

Kenai

232

 

232

Mat-Su

23

1

24

Total

258

3

261

 

 

 

 

Koyukon Athabaskan

 

 

 

Fairbanks

 

12

12

Galena

 

52

52

Iditarod

 

1

1

Yukon Flats

 

10

10

Yukon Koyukuk

9

125

134

Tanana

 

34

34

Total

9

234

243

 

 

 

 

Gwich'in (Kutchin) Athabaskan

 

 

 

Fairbanks

1

33

34

Yukon Flats

22

179

201

Total

23

212

235

 

 

 

 

Japanese

 

 

 

Anchorage

124

11

135

Fairbanks

1

3

4

Ketchikan

1

 

1

Unalaska

2

 

2

Total

128

14

142

 

 

 

 

Aleut

 

 

 

Aleutian Region

2

16

18

Anchorage

1

29

30

Bristol Bay

 

1

1

Kenai

 

1

1

Pribilof Islands

 

70

70

Unalaska

 

18

18

Total

3

135

139

 

 

 

 

Sugpiaq (Alutiiq)

 

 

 

Anchorage

 

2

2

Kenai

1

66

67

Lake & Peninsula

 

47

47

Total

1

115

116

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