International Legal Status of Native Alaska
1General Assembly Resolution 1469 (XIV). U. Umozurike, Self-Determination in International Law (Archon, Connecticut 1972) 11-35; W. Ofuatey-Kodjoe, The Principle of Self-Determination in International Law (Nellen, New York 1977) 69-96.
2Ofuatey-Kodjoe, The Principle of Self-Determination, op.cit., 97-112.
3Article 73e of the Charter, and Principles II and III of General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), 16 December 1960.
4U.N.G.A.O.R., 14th Session, Annexes, Agenda item 36, Document A/4115.
6Treaty of March 31, 1867, 15 Stat. 539.
7I. Brownlie, International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford University Press 1963) 75-93
8General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV), 15 December 1960, para. 4.
9General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV), 24 October 1970; General Assembly Resolution 3314 (XXIX), 14 December 1974. Also see Article 2 (4) of the Charter.
10General Assembly Resolution 3314 (XXIX), para.7.
11In Latin terra nullius, meaning "empty land."
12M.F. Lindley, The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territory in International Law (Longmans, London 1926) 11-23
13Western Sahara (Advisory Opinion), 1975 I.C.J. Reports, p. 12.
14General Assembly Resolution 748 (VIII), 27 November 1953.
15"Puerto Ricans Must Approve Future Status-Decolonization Committee," U.N. Chronicle 15(9):35 (October 1978); "Committee Calls for Fact Finding Mission to Visit Puerto Rico," U.N. Chronicle 16(6):25(July-October 1979).
16International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 1, in General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI), 16 December 1966. Also see Article 1 of the Charter and General Assembly Resolution 1514(XV), 15 December 1960, para. 2.
17General Assembly Resolution 1514 (XV).
18Article 76b of the Charter; General Assembly Resolution 637 (VII), 16 December 1952; General Assembly Resolution 742 (VIII), 27 November 1953; Principles VII and IX of General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), 16 December 1960; General Assembly Resolution 2525 (XXV), 24 October 1970.
19A. Rigo Sureda, The Evolution of the Right of Self-Determination; A Study of United Nations Practice (A.W. Sijthoff, Leiden 1973) 73-74, 294-306, and Ofuatey-Kodjoe, The Principle of Self-Determination, op. cit., 163.
20For example in the Spanish Sahara, Rigo Sureda, The Evolution of the Principle of Self-Determination, op. cit., 72-73, 214, and in East Timor, General Assembly Resolution 36/50, 24 November 1982, where the United Nations has repeatedly but unsuccessfully called for plebiscites.
21General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), 16 December 1960, Principle IV.
22Rigo Sureda, The Evolution of the Principle of Self-Determination, op.cit., 130-133. Unhappily, neither nationality accepted this compromise, and the resulting warfare left Israel in possession of most of the territory designated for Arab self-determination.
23Ibid. 154-162; "Trusteeship Council Team Leaves for Micronesia to Observe Referendum," U.N. Chronicle 15(7):19 (July 1978); "United Nations Mission to Observe Referendum in Marshall Islands," U.N. Chronicle 16(3):22 (March 1979). M. Pomerance, Self-Determination in Law and Practice: The New Document in the United Nations (M. Nijhoff, The Hague 1982) 19, criticizes the United Nations for inconsistency in this regard.
24Rigo Sureda, The Evolution of the Principle of Self-Determination, op. cit., 180-182.
25See ibid. 135-139 for a similar situation in post-war Eritrea.
26General Assembly Resolution 1541 (XV), 16 December 1960, Principle IX. The U.S. was recently urged to improve Micronesians' political education in advance of the plebiscite on their future political status. "Trusteeship Council Makes Recommendations on Future Political Status of Micronesia," U.N. Chronicle 18(8):23 (August 1981).
27House Report No. 624, 85th Congress, 2nd Session (1957), p.2.
28"Puerto Ricans Must Approve Future Status-Decolonization Committee," U.N. Chronicle d15 (9):35 (October 1978).
29"United Nations Mission to Observe Referendum in Marshall Islands," U.N. Chronicle 16(3):22 (March 1979)
30R. Barsh, "Indian Land Claims Policy in the United States," North Dakota Law Review 58:1-80 (1982).
31Alaska Native Claims: Hearing Before the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, 92nd Congress, 1st Session (1971), p. 171.
32Native participation in winning Congressional approval for the Act is reviewed in R. Arnold, Alaska Native Claims (Alaska Native Foundation, Anchorage 1978) 93-144.
33R. Barsh, "When Will Tribes Have a Choice?" in National Lawyers Guild, Rethinking Indian Law (Advocate Press, New Haven 1982) 43-47.
34House of Commons, "Indian Self-Government," No. 40 (1983).
35Alaska Native Claims: Hearing Before the Senate committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, op. cit., 362; House Report No. 624, op. cit.
36A. Deming and N. Horrock, "The Frozen War," Newsweek (January 23, 1984), pp. 36-38.
37M. Berry, The Alaska Pipeline: The Policies of Oil and Native Land Claims (Indian University Press, Bloomington 1975).
38"Trusteeship Council Makes Recommendations on Future Political Status of Micronesia," U.N. Chronicle 18 (8):23 (August 1981).
39K. Whyte, "Aboriginal Rights: The Native American's Struggle for Survival," Human Organization 41(2):178-83 (1982).
40Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope v. United States, 680 F. 2nd 122 (Ct. Cl. 1982), cert. den. 103 S.Ct. 299 (1982); United States v. Atlantic Richfield Co., 435 F. Supp. 1009 (D. Alaska 1977), affirmed 612 F. 2nd 1132 (9th Cir. 1980), cert. den. 499 U.S. 888 (1981).
41And was admitted by lawyers for the Inupiat Community of the Arctic, Petition for Writ of Certiorari, United States Supreme Court No. 82-359 (August 31, 1982), p. 8.
42R. Barsh, "Indigenous North America and Contemporary International Law," Oregon Law Review 62:73-125, at 102-110 (1983).
43The Alaskan Native situation was brought to the attention of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights at its last plenary session. U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1984/NGO/53, 9 March 1984.
44Compare the status of Inuit Greenland, which remains under Danish sovereignty but enjoys its own parliament and largely unrestricted domestic authority. Denmark recently was forced to accept Greenland's withdrawal from the Common Market. F. Lynge, "What the Greenlanders Want," Scandinavian Review 71:17-27 (Jund 1982); O. Johansen and C. Sorensen, "Greenland's Way Out of the European Community," World Today 39:270-277 (July-August 1983).
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