1There is a very large literature on the origins of modern native claims movements and the stakes involved. Works consulted include Armstrong and others (1978), Berger (1985), Berry (1975), Condon (1983), Hunt (1978), McInnes (1983), Morrison (1983), Orvik (1983), Sugden (1982), and Wittington (1985). Although they vary widely in their perspectives, emphases, and positions, most observers tend to agree on the general terms and context of native claims issues and the basic conflicts involved.
2The typology used in this paper is based directly on Hunt (1978), and it is supported by Morrison (1987) and Task Force to Review Comprehensive Claims Policy (1985).
3A recent positive example in Canada is the report of the federal Task Force to Review Comprehensive Claims Policy (1985), also known as the "Coolican report," which was written under the general direction of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. This report proposes that the government include political rights within the scope of native claims negotiations and that it abandon extinguishment objectives. On the other side of this issue is the report of a study team to a federal Task Force on Program Review (1985) under the Deputy Prime Minister. This report, known as the "Nielsen report," proposes that negotiations of comprehensive native claims be suspended until the government resolves the issue of native political rights, or "until the government position on native self-government is determined and implementation is well underway" (1985: 246).
4Albinski (1973:120) conveys an official Canadian and Australian perspective on the problems of aboriginal peoples in the late 1960s and early 1970s: "The attack on native backwardness and underintegration is being carried forth on the socioeconomic and political fronts. It has been recognized that a sickly, undereducated, and socially disorganized people cannot, even if awarded full legal equality, hope to compete and live productively in an advanced European society."
5Concerning the emphasis on "constitutional development," examples of Canadian government documents are Drury (1979) and Task Force to Review Comprehensive Claims Policy (1985); of a participants views, Nunavut Constitutional Forum (1983); and of observers comments, Abele (1985) and Whittington (1985). Also, Landes (1983:242-243) discusses the broad political culture context of the constitutional development perspective.
6In addition to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 (PL 92-203; 85 Stat. 688), sources include Berry (1975), Arnold (1976), McBeath and Morehouse (1980), Young (1981), Case (1984), and Berger (1985).
7Sources focusing exclusively on the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement are Feit (1982) and Feit (1985); principal sources on James Bay as well as the four additional Canadian cases discussed below are Hunt (1978), Morrison (1983), Nunavut Constitutional Forum (1983), Morse (1985), Task Force to Review Comprehensive Claims Policy (1985), Whittington (1985), and Morrison (1987).
8According to Hunt (1978:13), The Cree and Inuit were awarded surface title to only 1.3 percent of the area traditionally used by them. In comparison, Alaska Natives were awarded surface and subsurface title to 11 percent of all of Alaskas lands.
ABELE, F. 1985. Native Self-Determination and Practical Problems of Government: Some Recent Innovations in the Western Northwest Territories. The Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association, San Diego, California, February 18, 1985.
ALBINSKI, H.S. 1973. Canadian and Australian Politics in Comparative Perspective. New York, Oxford University Press.
ARMSTRONG, T., ROGERS, G., and ROWLEY, G. 1978. The Circumpolar North. London, Methuen and Company, Ltd.
ARNOLD, R. D. 1976. Alaska Native Land Claims. Anchorage, Alaska Native Foundation.
BARSH, R.L. 1984. The International Legal Status of Native Alaska. Alaska Native News, 2(7):36-41.
BERGER, T.R. 1985. Village Journey: The Report of the Alaska Native Review Commission. New York, Hill and Wang.
BERRY, M.C. 1975. The Alaska Pipeline. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.
CASE, D.S. 1984. Alaska Natives and American Laws. Fairbanks, University of Alaska Press.
COLEMAN, J.S. 1968. Modernization: Political Aspects. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 10:395-400. New York MacMillan and The Free Press.
CONDON, R.G. Canadian Inuit Land Claims and Economic Development. Alaska Native News, 1(11):10-12, 37; 1(12):16-18, 40.
DRUMMOND, R.J. 1982. A Political Perspective: Institutions and the Canadian Political System. In: METCALFE, W. Understanding Canada: A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Canadian Studies. New York, New York University Press: 143-226.
DRURY, H.C. 1979. Constitutional Development in the Northwest Territories, Report of the Special Representative. Ottawa, Canadian Government Publishing Center.
EASTON, D. 1965a. A Framework for Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
EASTON, D. 1965b. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
FEIT, H.A,. 1985. James Bay Cree Self-Governance and Management of Land and Wildlife Under the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Department of Anthropology, McMaster University. Presented at American Indian Workshop, European Association of American Studies, Copenhagen, April 1-3, 1985.
FEIT, H.A. 1982. The Income Security Program for Cree Hunters in Quebec: An Experiment in Increasing the Autonomy of Hunters in a Developed Nation State. Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 3(l):57-70.
HUNT, C.D. 1978. Approaches to Native Land Settlements and Implications for Northern Land Use and Resource Management Policies. In: KEITH, R.F., and WRIGHT, J.B. (editors). Northern Transitions, Vol. II, Second National Workshop on People, Resources, and the Environment North of 60º. Ottawa, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee: 5-41.
KINGDON, J. W. 1984. Agendas, Alternatives, and Public Policies. Boston, Little, Brown and Company.
LANDES, R.G. 1983. The Canadian Polity: A Comparative Introduction. Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc.
MCINNES, S. 1983. The Policy Consequences of Northern Development. In: ATKINSON, M.M., and CHANDLER, M.A. (editors). The Politics of Canadian Public Policy. Toronto, University of Toronto Press: 247-266.
MILNE, D. 1982. The New Canadian Constitution. Toronto, James Lorimer and Company, Publishers.MCBEATH, G.A., and MOREHOUSE, T.A. 1980. The Dynamics of Alaska Native Self-Government. Lanham, M.D., University Press of America.
MOREHOUSE, T.A. 1987. The Meaning of "Political Development" in the North. Polar Record, forthcoming.
MORRISON, W.R. 1983. A Survey of the History and Claims of the Native Peoples of Northern Canada. Ottawa, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.MORRISON, W.R. 1987. The Comprehensive Claims Process in Canadas North: New Rhetoric, Old Policies. Department of History, Brandon University. Presented at Annual Meeting of Western Regional Science Association, Kona, Hawaii, February 20, 1987.
MORSE, B. 1985. Indigenous Self-Government in Canada. Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa. Presented at Annual Meeting of the Western Regional Science Association, San Diego, California, February 20, 1985.
NUNAVUT CONSTITUTIONAL FORUM. 1983. Building Nunavut. Yellowknife, N.W.T.
ORVIK, N. 1983. Northern Development, Northern Security. Northern Studies Series 1/83. Kingston, Ontario, Center for International Relations, Queens University.
OSTRY, S. 1985. Government Intervention: Canada and the United States Compared. In: LANDES, R.G. (editor). Canadian Politics: A Comparative Reader. Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc.
RIGGS, F.W. 1984. Development. In: SARTORI, G. (editor). Social Science Concepts: A Systematic Analysis. Beverly Hills, California, Sage Publications, 125-203.
SUGDEN, D. 1982. Arctic and Antarctic: A Modern Geographical Synthesis. Oxford, Basil Blackwell.
TASK FORCE ON PROGRAM REVIEW. 1985. Improved Program Delivery: Indians and Natives, A Study Team Report. Ottawa, Canadian Government Publishing Center.
TASK FORCE TO REVIEW COMPREHENSIVE CLAIMS POLICY. 1985. Living Treaties: Lasting Agreements, Report of the Task Force to Review Comprehensive claims Policy. Ottawa, Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
WALKER, J.L. 1969. The Diffusion of Innovations Among the American States. American Political Science Review, 63(3):880-899.
WESTELL, A. 1985. Our Fading Political Culture. In: LANDES, R.G. (editor) . Canadian Politics: A Comparative Reader. Scarborough, Ontario, Prentice-Hall Canada, Inc.
WHITTINGTON, M. S. 1985. Political and Constitutional Development in the N.W.T. and Yukon: The Issues and the Interests. In WHITTINGTON, M.S. (editor). The North. Toronto, University of Toronto Press.
YOUNG, O.R. 1981. Natural Resources and the State: The Political Economy of Resource Management, Chapter 2, The Disposition of the Public Lands: The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. Berkeley, University of California Press.