Taken to Extremes: Education in the Far North. Frank Darnell and Anton Hoëm

Chapter 4

Historical Development of Schooling


1Much of the early history reported in this section is adapted from Darnell 1970.

2Harjunpää 1967.

3Rogers 1962.

4Tikhmenev 1978.

5Ibid., pp. 87-88.

6Okun 1951, p.215.

7Ibid., pp. 211-2 1.

8Okun 1951, p. 210.

9US Congress 1886, p.5.

10US Congress 1886.

11Cremin 1977, p. 49.

12United States 1884.

13Unpublished document on file in the archives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Seattle, Washington.

14Jenness 1962, p. 11.

15United States 1905.

16US Department of Interior 1918, pp. 11, 74.

17Alaska 1920, pp. 39, 55.

18Ray 1959, p. 44.

19For a detailed discussion of curriculum during this period, see Ray 1959, pp. 58-111.

20US Department of Interior, Bureau of Education 1926, p. 500.

21Meriam 1928.

22US Department of Interior 1934, p. 129.

23US Department of Interior 1949, in Jenness 1962, p. 59.

24Alaska 1943, p. 1.

25Ibid., pp. 35-36.

26Alaska 1954, p. 26.

27Alaska Constitution, art. VII, sec. 1.

28US Congress 1968, p. 5.

29Conference on Alaska Secondary Education, Transcript of Proceedings, December 1968, on file in the State Department of Education, pp. 51-52.

30Darnell et al. 1974.

31The borough is a unique feature of Alaska’s local government. Article X of the Alaska Constitution provides for a pattern of local government consisting of cities and organized and unorganized boroughs, but with no other local government entities permitted. The legislature determines the classification of cities and boroughs, prescribes their organization and powers, and allows for the enactment of home rule charters. In short, they are intermediate forms of government between state and local levels. Only those areas with adequate reason for intermediate government have been organized in this way, leaving a large unorganized borough throughout much of rural Alaska. It is in this area that many village schools are located.

32Alaska 1991, pp. 42-43.

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