78Stan Cohen, The Forgotten War—A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada, (Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 1981), pp. 92-98.

79Slobodin, Kutchin, p. 529.

80Hosley, Kolchan, p. 621.

81June Helm, Vol. ed., Subarctic, Vol. 6: (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1981), Minto, Alaska, by Wallace M. Olson, p. 707.

82Townsend, Tanaina, p. 637.

83Case, The Special Relationship, p. 134.

84U.S. vs. Alcea Band of Tillamooks et. al. 329 U.S. 40 (1946).

85Jones, Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, p. 24.

86Tee Hit Tons vs. U.S. 120 F. Supp. 202 (1954).

87Sup. Ct. review of Tee Hit Tons 348 U.S. 272 (1955).

88Jones, Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, p. 29.

89Krauss, Alaska Native Languages, pp. 36-42.

90Alaska Statehood Act of July 7, 1958, P.L. 85-508, 72 Stat. 339.

91Margaret Lantis, "The Current Nativistic Movement in Alaska," Circumpolar Problems (1969), p. 103.

92The Total Native Population in 1960 was at 42,522.

93Gerald McBeath, Tom Morehouse, The Dynamics of Alaska Native Self-Government, (Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1980). p. 12.

94Ibid., p. 13.

95Ibid., p. 14.

9692nd Congress, Senate Report 92-405 to accompany S. 35.

97Minutes from the meeting are attached in Appendices, see part 5.

98Statement of Tanana Chiefs, Tanana, Alaska, June 1962, See appendix.

99Philip Drucker, The Native Brotherhoods: Modern Intertribal Organizations on the Northwest Coast (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1958). p. 3.

100Ibid., p. 28.

101Ibid., p. 74. A chapter of the Brotherhood was organized in Nome a few years before 1954. Some time after that, the organization renamed itself the "Arctic Native Brotherhood," but remained affiliated with southeastern Alaska.

102U.S. Department of the Interior, Alaska Field Committee, Minutes, June 1965 meeting, College, Alaska.

103P.L.O. 4582, Department of the Interior, January 1969.

104Report, Conference of Native Organizations, June 1964, Fairbanks, Alaska.


106Grace Wolf, "Native Politics: An Overview." Paper presented to 20th Alaska Science Conference, College, Alaska, 1969 (mimeographed).

107This, according to Emil Notti; telephone conversation April 6, 1983. According to information from AFN, the earliest recorded with the state group was AFN Charitable Trust—August 1968. On January 8, 1970, AFN, Inc. was incorporated under the state law.

108AFN, Official Constitution and Bylaws Preamble.

109Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska. Alaska Natives and the Land (Anchorage, Alaska, 1968) p. 29.

110Personal interview with Edgar Paul Boyko, Anchorage, Alaska, November 30, 1982.

111State of Alaska v. Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the Interior, et. al., in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, No. 23603.

112The following villages filed protests: Lake Alegnagik - 59,000 acres; Minto - 1,124,000 acres; Nenana - 2,790,000 acres; Northway - 2,274,508 acres; Tanacross - 3,142,700 acres; Mentasta - 399,800 acres; Gulkana - 1,818,100 acres; Copper Center - 1,200,000 acres; Yakataga - 260,000 acres; Birch Creek - 948,860 acres; Stevens Village - 1,682,000 acres.

113"Senate Proposes Cash Payments for Valid Native Land Claims," Tundra Times, April 15, 1966.


115Prepared by Department of the Interior, I Session, 90th Congress.

116S. 2020, introduced on June 20, 1967; reintroduced in November as S. 2690.

117Personal interview with Edgar Paul Boyko, Anchorage,, Alaska, November 30, 1982.

118S. 2906, H.R. 15049.

119P.L. Order 4582, Department of the Interior, January 17, 1969.

120This "land freeze" was later extended by Secretary W. Hickel.

121S. 2906, introduced on February 1, 1969, H.R. 15049.

122Hearing before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs United States Senate; 91st Congress, 1st Session on S. 1830. Washington, D.C.; GPO, 1968.


124Letter of Transmittal to Senator Henry Jackson from Joseph Fitzgerald; Anchorage, Alaska, October 1, 1968, Alaska Natives and the Land, p. iii.

125S.1964; S.2020; S.2906; S.3586; S.3859; H.R.15049; H.R.17129.

126Anchorage Daily News, Nov. 26, 1969.

127Anchorage Daily News, Nov. 25, 1969.

128Anchorage Daily News, Nov. 26, 1969.

129Anchorage Daily News, Nov. 26, 1969.

130Tundra Times, Dec. 19, 1969.

131Summary of this survey in "How Do Alaskans Like the Oil Industry?" Alaska Construction & Oil, September 1970, p. 88-92.

132Personal interview with Donald Wright, Fairbanks, Alaska, March 24, 1983.

133"Historic Alaska Native Land Victory." "Indian Affairs," January, 1972 (Newsletter of the Association on American Indian Affairs), No. 82, New York, NY.

134Personal interview, Emil Notti, Juneau, Alaska, Feb. 16, 1983.

135Meetings were held with Vice President Spiro Agnew, Secretary of the Interior Roger Morton and others. Don Wright reports that during the 18 working months proceeding passage of ANCSA, he made about 36 trips to Washington D.C..

136Statement of William Paul to AFN Convention, Fairbanks, Alaska, October, 1971.

137"Alaskans Accept Land Claims Bill." New York Times, Dec. 20, 1971.

138Personal interview with Donald Wright, Fairbanks, Alaska, March 24, 1983.


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