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aatunaq- (Rumex arcticus) sourdock. An edible plant found along the margins of lakes used in salmon-egg soup and in a kind of akutaq (Eskimo ice cream).

akutaq- lit. 'something mixed.' (popularly defined as 'Eskimo ice cream') a category of foods made by mixing together one or more oil-rich ingredients (e.g., Crisco, seal-oil, caribou back-fat, fish livers, bird fat), berries or greens (e.g., cloudberries [commonly called salmonberries], cranberries, crowberries [commonly called blackberries], blueberries, sourdock, raisins, commercial berries, canned fruit), and other optional ingredients including sugar, cooked mashed fish, mashed potatoes, milk, eggs, water, and snow. To first-time samplers, akutaq often seems like a fruit salad of wild berries. Traditional akutaqs are very nutritious because they contain a fat soluble vitamin-rich (vitamins A and D) ingredient such as seal-oil or fish livers with a water soluble vitamin-rich (vitamins C and E) ingredient such as salmon berries or sourdock.

amellrutaq- an ancient form of democratic government where there was open discussion and the majority will rule that may determine the settlement. The amellrutaq was practiced in the Qaygiq where the talking circle was created at the perimeter of the building. The discussion was conducted in the circle going clockwise until everyone had a chance to speak their concerns. After all the alternatives have been discussed the vote was conducted and the majority ruled.

Amigtulirmiut- A village that was wiped out completely by the epidemic. Located around Black River.

Amilquyugaq- a fishcamp site located along the Aprun River.

Aprun- Aphrewn River. Main salmon-fishing river with several campsites and old village sites. Aprun is situated south of the Kashunak River, which then connects with each other.

Aqngirqelluki- Woman giving a gift to a man and asking for something in return. This is during the festival petugtaryaraq.(Giving hardship and pain, whether it be in physical or mental condition.)

Aqumlluk- Putting a person or thing in its appropriate place.

Arumarrluk- Poked fish(dried fish preserved in seal oil).

Arumeng- A sore of the body( refered to the small pox epidemic)

aqevyik- (Rubus chamaemorus) cloudberry, commonly called salmonberry. Picked in the fall, and is one of the major subsistence activities of the Cup’ik people. This berry is the main ingredient in most akutaqs.

Askinuk Mountains- (Cup’ik pronunciation, Askinaq) mountains located fourteen miles north of Chevak. The village of Scammon Bay, or Marayaarmiut, is situated on the north side of the Askinuk Mountains.

Atsiyaq- To go berry camp. To gather berries.

Avayaq nanguq- The announcement of the ceramony that will be held tomorrow night.

Ayaakutat (Ayagyugat)- Young boys

ayuq- (Ledum palustre) labrador tea. A low-lying evergreen shrub whose leaves are commonly steeped together with black tea, and also has medicinal and ritual uses.

caiggluk- (Artemisia) the wormwood plant. This vitamin C-rich plant is used for medicinal purposes, taken either internally or externally. For internal use, the leaves are boiled in water, stored in jars, and refridgerated. The broth is sipped mouthsful at a time, few times a day, for colds, fevers, body-aches, or any internal-bodily ailments. Externally, they may be used for switches during hot steam-baths, esp. on sore muscle areas; or rubbed onto minor wounds.

can’giiq- (Dallia pectoralis) blackfish.

cangerlagpak- an epidemic of either smallpox or influenza.

caqlak- (Sedum rosea) the rosewort or roseroot plant. The fleshy tuberous root of this plant is peeled and chewed. They are used as a remedy for sore throats, cold sores, and sores on the body.

caqun- sealskin bag used as a container for poking dried salmon fish in seal oil. The fish are stuffed into the bag until full, then the seal oil is added. These bags were also used as a qerruinaq, or harpoon float.

Cev’allraq- lit. ‘one that has cut through.’ Old Chevak. Old village site for the Qissunaq people before excavating to present Chevak.(Cev'allrarmuit-People of old chevak)This is now a campsite for several families, and is also a hub for the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Wildlife Refuge (YKDWR) biologists and interns.

Cev’aq- the Cup’ik name for Chevak, derived from the word ‘cut-through channel.’

cevellret- two bodies of water connected to each other to form a passageway; made by way of natural land erosion or by the work of humans.

cev'lleq- (pl. cevellret) man-made channel used as a shortcut.

Cillam Cua- Man of the universe, Creator.

Cin'aq- salmon fish, usualy chum or king, aged through the process of burying them into the maraq (usually during the fishing season). The hole is dug until the permafrost is exposed. The bottom of the hole is then covered with dry grass, moss, and/cardboard. Then several salmon are placed in. The top of the salmon is again coverd with grass, moss and or cardboard, then the remaining dug up groung is placed back into the hole, tightly covering the contents. The aged salmon fish are usually dug out during the early winter, and eaten as a delicacy.

Cingigmiut- A village that was wiped out by the epidemic. Located around black river.

citegtaq- (Microgadus proximus); saffron cod, arctic cod; commonly called tomcod.

Civuliaqatuk- giant in the origin story of the Qissunaq landscape.

cukilek- (Pungitius pungitius) stickle-back fish, commonly called needle-fish. These small fish usually are from 1-inch to 2-inches in length. They have spiny backs.

cukvak- (Esox lucius) northern pike fish.

Cup’ik- lit. ‘real person.’ The language and people of the Chevak area. More generally, any Yup’ik person.

curaq- (Vaccinium uliginosum) blueberry.

cuuyaraq- way of life as a human being, including interactions with others, subsistence knowledge, environmental knowledge and understanding, and spiritual balance. (In Yup’ik, yuuyaraq)

Egkuq- Furthest wall.

Ekevkaq- Melting frost by making fire in the middle of sod house.

Englullugmiut- Settlement in Kiuqlivik that was known to die because of thirst or lack of water. The time this happened was during ancient times.

Eviutet- Grass used as insulation placed over the frames of the sod house.

Evuneq- Large ice that is formed in the shallow parts of the sea.

Friday, Joseph- deceased. A respected elder, well-known for his storytelling, composing and choreographing of dances and songs, and knowledge of traditional culture.

iitaq- (Eriophorum angustifolium) tall cottongrass, especially the edible lower part of the stem gathered by voles and collected by people from the vole’s winter caches.

Ikaraliitat- Wooden seat boards for the Qayaq.

Ikiituggsuq- Gathering of wild celery.

ikiituq- (Angelica lucida) wild celery.

Ilgariq-Bladder Festival, which took place in november or in early december. Honoring of the seal spirits and returning them to the sea.

iluraq- cross-cousin.

Ingricukvak- volcano mountains located east-southeast of Chevak.

Ingrillrat- pl.; singular: Ingrillraq. Lit., ‘old or shabby mountains.’ one of the two Cup’ik names for the Kusilvak Mountain. The other Cup’ik name is Manialnguq.

Ingrissaareq- low mountain situated seven miles east of Chevak.

Ircinrraq- Supernatural being that resemble the irish leprechan.

Itertaaq- A Festival that took place in september, this festival lasted five days. It means, to go into the houses of the people.

Kangiraq- Corner

kapuukaraq- (Ranunculus pallasii) Pallas Buttercup. An edible green whose shoots are raked from the bottoms of lakes in the early spring, and are simmered in water with seal blubber or added to water fowl soups.

Kashunak- how map-makers spelled Qissunaq.

Kashunamiut- English version of Qissunamiut(people of Qissunaq).

Kassiglurmiut- A village that was wiped out by the epidemic. Located around the kusilvak mountains.

Kataneq- Slushy mud used to cover the holes of cracks and openings in the sod house.

kavlakuareq- (Empetrum nigrum) crowberry, commonly called blackberry. Picked in large quantities in the fall and used in akutaq.

kayurrlugaq- (Cottus cognatus) sculpin, bullhead. Locally known as devil fish, because of the sharp horns on its head.

kelugkaq- coarse grass used for weaving mats. These grasses are found along lakes and small sloughs, usually where there is moss and high tundra alongside the water bodies.

Kenirvik- Fire place in the sod house.

Kepneq- Above the ground door used during spring through late fall. Closed off during winter.

Kiitaat- Tough part of the sod. This part of the sod kept the rain out.

Kiuqliivik- main river draining out to Hooper Bay. This river has several situated salmon-fishing campsites and also gives access to the Kashunak River through two man-made channels, one towards the Kashunak River and the other towards Old Chevak (Cev’allraq).

Kokechik- English version of saying and spelling qugciq. Located about twelve miles northwest of chevak.

Kuineq- Main channel of a river.

Kusilvak- mountain located about thirty miles northeast of Chevak. Its Cup’ik counterpart names are Manialnguq and Ingrillrat.

Kuskokwim River- second longest river in Alaska. The Kuskokwim drains into the Bering Sea south of Chevak, on the southside of the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) delta.

Legciq- Hooked walking stick with an ice pick at the end.

maklak (or, maklagaq)- (Erignathus barbatus) bearded seal.

manaq- a lure with a hook, typically a fishing set consisting of a lure with a hook, line, and a short stick.

Manialnguq- lit. ‘rugged one.’ One of two Cup’ik names for the Kusilvak Mountain. The other Cup’ik name is Ingrillrat.

manignaq- (lota lota) loche fish or burbot.

Manuaqinraq- River south of Aprun river.

marallaq- (Hedysarum alpinum) an edible grassroot gathered by voles and collected by people from the vole’s winter caches.

maraq- low-lying land subject to coastal flooding characterized by salt-water lakes, salt-tolerant grasses and abundant water fowl. The landscape varies from hard-packed ground to soft, marshy swamps and lakes.

Maruaq- 1. howling of a dog or wolf. 2. a ritual of singing a song during the festival of itertaaq.

Nakirneq- side walls

naptaq- white fish

Nasqulek- lit. ‘one with a head.’ Mountain located twenty miles east of Chevak.

naternaq- (Platichthys stellatus, Atheresthes stomias) flounder, also known as flat fish.

Nayamin, Ulric- deceased. A respected elder and Cup’ik philosopher, Joe Friday’s helper and partner, well-known for his leadership and hunting skills.

nayiq- (Phoca hispida) ringed seal.

Nekevyuut- teenage boys.

Nelson Island Mountains- mountains on Nelson Island, south of Chevak. The communities of Tununak, Toksook Bay, and Nightmute are situated on Nelson Island.

Nengqerrneq- Land mass between Aprun and Qissunaq river. Identified by highland land form.

Nukalpiaq- fortunate, skilled hunters.

Nunangnerraq- late-summer campsite area where people go to pick salmonberries, located along the Qissunaq River.

nunapik- lit. ‘real land.’ higher tundra free from coastal flooding, characterized by freshwater lakes, abundant berries, and lichens.

Pakigtaat- vegetated sod, five to six inches thick.

pairtesqevkenaku- a warning to not go against it.

Pategluku- patting of the window to remove frost.

Petugtaryaraq- festival that was held during the month of december. traditional exchanging of gifts

Puget- black fish coming up for air.

Pugyaraq- an underground entryway to and from the sod house, used during winter.

puyurniq- (Rubus arcticus) nagoonberries, commonly called raspberries.

qagan- (pl: qagatet) small, deep outlet stream connecting a lake with a river or slough. A favorite and highly effective place to set conical split-wood or wire blackfish traps.

Qagatet- large lakes where various species of fish spawn.

qagerluteng- '…they exploded' (used in a sentence).

Qaluyaat- lit. ‘dipnets.’ Nelson Island, mountains on Nelson Island, south of Chevak.

Qamaneq- lit. ‘place lacking winds or water currents.’ Salmon-fishing campsite on the Kiuqliivik River.

Qaspeq- outer lining of a parka.

qayaq- kayak.

qaygiq- a large sod-covered community house where men and boys slept, took fire baths, and worked on projects. It was also a place where ceremonies and dances were performed.

Qerratarutet- The wooden frame on the sod house.

qerruinaq- seal skin bag used as a harpoon float.

Qissunamiut- people of Qissunaq. Our people moved first to Old Chevak and then to the present village of Chevak.

Qissunaq- the main river area where the people of Chevak originated from, including campsites along the Qissunaq River and inside the tributary streams and sloughs.

Qugciq- place located about twelve miles northwest of chevak. used for spring seal hunting and commercial fishing.

quunarliaraq- (Oxycoccus microcarpus) bog cranberry.

Quyungssiq- salmon-fishing campsite on the Aphrewn (Aprun) River.

Scammon Bay Mountains- the Askinuk Mountains. (See Askinuk)

Scammon Bay- village located north of Chevak, and is situated on the north side of the Askinuk mountains.

taperrnaq- (Elymus mollis) beach rye grass. Other names used are saltwater rye grass or coarse seashore grass. This strong grass is used for weaving grassbaskets and loosely woven carrying bags.

Tapraq- skin, rope or string used to tie various things like carving, masks ect.

tayaruq- (Hippurus species) mare's-tail plant.

teggneq (pl. teggneret or teggenret)- a respected elder.

Tengmairun- First of the seasonal festivals held during the end of the summer season. A lot of preparation was done before this celebration. This was a form of potlatch.

Tevyarmiut- salmon-fishing campsite on the first-outer bend of the Kiuqliivik River.

tumagliq- (Vaccinium vitis) lowbush cranberry. Used in akutaq.

Tuqtuq- first combustible engines.

Tutemkaq- burrow step for the underground passage way in the sod house.

Ualirneq- the wall located at the entrance of the sod house.

Uqnaq- Sourdough soup flavored with fish liver and blood. Eaten only once a year during salmon fishing season.

Ukalikciq- river where salmon-fishing and salmon berry-camps are situated. This river is one of the tributaries of the Kashunak River, and is accessible to the Ingrissaareq Mountain.

Unguyaq- Gathering of flightless molting geese.

Uniqullek- One of the qaygiq in Nunaruluq. This Uniqullek was an ancient building to the south of Qaygicuaraq.

Uqicitaaryarnariuq- "it is time to go get seal blubber." This expression is for the blubber of bearded seal only.

Uqiquq- Passing out of bearded seal oil- The stripped long blubber for girls in the family and square cut blubber for men in the household.

Urasqaq- painting on the faces on the fifth day of itertaaq to commemorate the time the youngsters encountered a supernatural being.

utngungssaaq- (Hippurus vulgaris) the edible tuber of the mare’s-tail plant gathered by mice and collected by people from the mouse’s winter caches.

Yukon River- longest and largest river system in Alaska. The Yukon drains into the Bering Sea through a number of channels, mostly north of Chevak. Over tens of thousands of years, it has created a large delta (the Y-K delta). The majority of Yup’ik communities are situated in this delta or along its sea coast.

Yup’ik- lit. ‘real person.’ Language of the Central Alaskan Yup’ik area from Seward Peninsula to the Alaska Peninsula; more generally, a person from that region.

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