Section 3: Footnotes


1National Program Inadequacies and Needs to Better Serve Rural and Native Alaska." Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, March 25, 1966.

2Arnold, R.D., et al. Alaska Natives and the Land. Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1968: p. 3.

3Thc AFN Report on the Status of Alaska Natives: A Call for Action. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Federation of Natives, 1989: p. 29.

4Towards:a Comprehensive Alaska Rural Economic Development Strategy. Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs, December 1991: p. 12.

5Huskey, L. The Economy of Village Alaska. Anchorage: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, March 1992: p.4.

6Huskcy, L., and Morehouse, T.A. Development in remote regions: What do we know? Arctic, 1992, 42, 2, 128-137:p.134. Internal references to two additional papers: Stabler, I., and Howe, E. Socioeconomic transformation of the native people of the Northwest Territories, 1800-2000; and Langdon, S. Commercial fisheries: implications for western Alaska development; papers presented at the Western Regional Science Association in 1990 and 1984, respectively.

7See, for example: Knapp, G. The economic outlook for rural Alaska. ISER Working Paper 88.1 Anchorage, Alaska: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska, 1988.

8Huskey, L. op. cit., p. 2.

9Kanahele, G.H.S. Ku Kanaka — Standing Tall: A Search for Hawaiian Values. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1986.

10Economic Summit 1989: Summary Report. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Native Foundation, 1990.

11Based on studies conducted by the Western Alaska Fisheries Development Association.

12The reader is referred to the presentation of employment calculation methods on the preceding page. The unemployment figures quoted in this section refer to those used by the Department of Labor, which underrepresent the level of true unemployment.

13Memorandum prepared by the Alaska Federation of Natives and delivered to Secretary Babbitt.

14Public Law 96-487, 94 Stat. 2371, 16 USC 1611: Section 1308.

15The data reported here are from the "1992 Annual Progress Report on Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action in Alaska State Government," prepared by the Alaska Department of Administration.

16"AmeriCorps." Published by The Corporation for National and Community Service, Washington, D.C., October 1993: p.2.

17Calista Corporation. "Final Recommendations for Action Submitted to the Alaska Natives Commission, January 12, 1993." p.5.

18Marshall, D. The Alaska Economy: Performance Report, 1987. Juneau, Alaska: Department of Commerce and Economic Development, December 1988: p.3.

19The quote is from written testimony submitted jointly by Mr. Gary Moore and Mr. Edward Rutledge, Tanana Chiefs Conference, for the hearing held in Fairbanks, July 18, 1992.

20Twelve of the ANCSA regional corporations are in Alaska; the remaining one, called the "13th region," represents Alaska Natives, who, at the time of the Act's passage, were Outside. It did not receive land and does not have any operations in Alaska.

21DeMan, M. Contemporary rural Alaska and the role of the village corporations. In Cornwall, P.G., and G. McBeath (eds) Alaska’s Rural Development. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc, 1982: p. 58.

22Colt, S. Financial performance of Native regional corporations. Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, Vol. XXVIII, No. 2. Anchorage: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska, 1991. The report acknowledges that the data are incomplete and would have benefited from adjustments that the author was not able to make: "These include (1) adjusting for part-time employment and partial ownership of joint ventures so the numbers of annual average jobs are more accurately tied to the corporations' involvement; (2) adjusting for contracted operations such as timber cutting, which may generate substantial employment attributable to the regional corporation that owns the land; (3) adjusting for out-of-state workers." (p. 23.)

23This figure needs to be interpreted cautiously. First, data do not exist to show how many shareholders of the regional corporations are seeking employment or would be available to work for their corporations if they had the option. Second, shareholder employment does not equate to Native employment, since a shareholder of one regional corporation (e.g., CIRI) working for another regional corporation (e.g., NANA) would not appear in this table.

24Ibid, p. 21.

25The 1990 U.S. Census found 53,867 Alaska Natives and American Indians in Alaska over the age of 16 years and therefore in the available work force. U.S. Department of Commerce Report 1990 CPH-5-3: p. 93.

26Gaffney, M. The human resources approach to Native rural development: A special case. In Cornwall, P., and G. McBeath (eds) op. cit., p. 141. Internal quotes from John Schaeffer, "NANA Goals and Investment Strategy." Kotzebue, Alaska: Memorandum to the NANA Board of Directors, October 20, 1980.

27Ibid, p. 152.

28Lonner, T.D. Subsistence as an economic system in A1aska: Theoretical observations and management implications. In Langdon, S.J. Contemporary Alaska Native Economies. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc., 1986: p. 15.

29The Commission especially thanks Mr. Jim Wiedeman and Mr. Chuck McGee, Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, and Mr. Bernhard E. Richert, Jr., Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, for their help.

30"Business Cache," vol. 3, no.1. Published by the National Bank of Alaska, P.O. Box 100600, Anchorage, Alaska 99510.

31Some of the information contained here came from the "Business Cache," vol. 3, no. 2.

32Meeting of the Economic Task Force, Anchorage, Alaska, August 25, 1992; part of the permanent record of the Alaska Natives Commission: p. 20.

33Ibid, p. 21.

34The following section is paraphrased from the publication The CDQ Program: New Economic Potential for Western Alaska,. published by the Bering Sea Fishermen's Association, Anchorage, Alaska.

35Welch, L. "High notes and low notes in Alaska's fisheries year." Anchorage Daily News, January 2, 1994: p. C6.

36"Communiry Profiles Developed for the Social Impact Assessment of the Inshore/Offshore Amendment Proposal." LaJolla, Ca1ifornia: Impact Assessment, Inc., January 25, 1991: p. 16.

37At its annual convention in October 1993, the Alaska Federation of Natives passed Resolution 93-83, which "strongly supports the continuation of the CDQ Program, the expansion of CDQs into all Bering Sea species and fisheries, and the adoption of a CDQ amendment to the Magnuson Act that would make CDQs a permanent part of all Bering Sea fisheries allocation systems;" and it further stated that "AFN supports the expansion of the CDQ Program to include all of the Native villages which have traditionally fished and are in close proximity to the Bearing Sea." The Alaska Natives Commission strongly endorses that resolution as well.

38Postell, A. Where Did the Reindeer Come From? Alaska Experience, the First Fifty Years. Portland, Oregon: Amaknak Press, 1990.

39Jackson, S. Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer in Alaska, 1892. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

40Stern, R.O.; Arobio, E.L.; Naylor, L.L.; & Thomas, W.C. Eskimos, Reindeer, and Land. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 59, 1980.

41Kerndt, G.M. History of the Alaskan Reindeer Industry and Its Problems with Land, Ownership, and Marketing. Agroborealis, 1990, 22, 22-25.

42Stern, 1980, op. cit.

43Sherwonit, B. Alaska's Reindeer. Alaska Geographic, 1993, 20, 94-99, p. 94.


45"Business Cache," Vol. 3, No. 1: p. 7.

46Koslow, A. Limited entry policy and impacts on Bristol Bay salmon fishermen. In S. Langdon (ed.) op. cit., pp. 60-61.

47Letter from Edward E. Crane, President, Alaska Commercial Fishing and Agriculture Bank, Anchorage, Alaska, to Ms. Julie Kitka, Alaska Federation of Natives, February 3, 1993.

48Work has been completed in Buckland, Golovin, Hughes, Scammon Bay, Noorvik, Selawik, Shishmaref, Wales, Emmonak, Hooper Bay, Akiachak, Akiak, Kipnuk, Tuluksak, Tununak, Naknck, and Togiak.

49Deadline for repairs of fuel tanks nears." Anchorage Daily News, February 26, 1994.

50Soon after this was written, the moratorium was extended for a year, but the urgency to remedy these problems will recur in 1995.

51This echoes a recommendation previously made by the Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs.


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