*Stephen Haycox is professor of history in the University of Alaska, Anchorage. His article is a revised version of a paper originally presented at a history conference in November of 1982.
1Act of May 17, 1884, 23 Stat. 24, providing civil government for Alaska; Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1884-85. 49 Cong., 1 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, p. 286 (serial 2381); Ted C. Hinckley, "The Alaska Labors of Sheldon Jackson," Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1961.
2"Two Missions to Alaska," The Pacific Historian (26:1), p. 40; an earlier, more complete version of the paper appeared as "Conflicting Visions in Alaskan Education," Occasional Paper No. 3, Center for Cross-Cultural Studies. University of Alaska (Fairbanks), 1980.
3Herbert Bolton, "The Mission as a Frontier Institution in the Spanish-American Colonies," American Historical Review (XXIII:1, Oct. 1917), pp. 54-59; James T. Moore, Indian and Jesuit: A Seventeenth Century Encounter (n.p.: Loyola University Press, 1982), pp. xxi-xii; Jerome V. Jacobsen, Educational Foundations of the Jesuits in Sixteenth-Century New Spain (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1938), pp. 237-39.
4Congressional Globe, 40 Cong., 1 sess., pp. 556-57. The genesis and activities of the peace commission are explained in Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis, 1865-1900 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976), pp. 18 ff. Federal Indian policy after the Civil War is discussed also in Loring B. Priest, Uncle Sam's Stepchildren: The Reformation of United States Indian Policy, 1865 -1887 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1942), Henry E. Fritz, The Movement for Indian Assimilation. 1860-1890 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1963), and Robert Winston Mardock, The Reformers and the American Indian (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971).
540 Cong., 2 sess., House Exec. Doc. 97, Report of the Indian Commissioners, pp. 1-23 (serial 1337). See also Dept. of the Interior, The Indian Bureau from 1824 to 1924, Board of Indian Commissioners Bulletin No. 242 (Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1924).
6Wilcomb Washburn, The Indian in America (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), pp. 209 ff.; William T. Hagan, American Indians (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), pp. 92 ff.
7William G. McLoughlin, ed., The American Evangelicals, 1800-1900: An Anthology (New York: Harper and Row, 1968); Robert T. Handy, A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities (New York: Oxford University Press, 1971), pp. 99-100; and see particularly Prucha, "Indian Policy Reform and American Protestantism, 1880-1900," in Prucha, Indian Policy in the United States: Histoical Essays (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1981), pp. 229-241.
8Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis, p. 290.
9Hinckley, "Sheldon Jackson and Benjamin Harrison: Presbyterians and the Administration of Alaska," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, LIV (1963), pp. 66-74; "Publicist of a Forgotten Frontier," Journal of the West, IV (1965), pp. 27-40; "The Early Alaskan Ministry of S. Hall Young, 1878-1888," Journal of Presbyterian History, XLVI (1967), pp. 175-96.
1047 Cong., 2 sess., House Misc. Doc. 64, pt. 2, Tenth Census, Population and Resources of Alaska, pp. 1419-29 (serial 2060); 53 Cong., 3 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1893-94, II. p. 1747 (serial 3215).
1149 Cong., 1 sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 85, Education in Alaska, pp. 12-13 (serial 2339).
12Ibid., pp. 31-32.
1349 Cong., 1 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Report of the Indian School Superintendent, pp. 124 ff. (serial 2379).
14Education in Alaska, pp. 22 ff., passim; see also Report of the Commission on the Condition of Indians, June 30, 1885 (created by the 1884 civil government act), Interior Department Territorial Papers, Alaska, 1868-1911 (NARS Microcopy 430), roll 1.
15Quoted in Hinckley, Alaskan John G. Brady: Missionary, Businessman, Judge, and Governor, 1878-1918 (n.p.: Miami University by Ohio State University Press, 1982), p. 59.
1672 Cong., 2 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1931, p. 12 (not in CIS serial set); the paragraph cited appears in Lester Henderson, "The Development of Education in Alaska, 1867-1931," Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1935, p. 206.
17Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis, pp.265 ff.
18Ibid., pp. 190-91; Prucha, Indian Policy in the United States, pp. 242, 247-48.
19Op. cit.; contracting was discussed, and statistics given, in the annual report of the Indian Affairs commissioner, for example, 52 Cong., 2 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commission of Indian Affairs, 1892, pp. 56 ff. (serial 3088).
20Education in Alaska, pp. 35 ff., passim; Commissioner of Education John Eaton recommended contracting for Alaska in his report to the Secretary of the Interior on the establishment of schools in Alaska and the appointment of Sheldon Jackson as general agent; see Interior Department Territorial Papers, Alaska, 1868-1911, Eaton to Secretary of Interior, Aug. 24, 1885 (NARS Microcopy 430, roll 1).
21Education in Alaska, p. 34; in 1898 Congress requested a full report on contracting in Alaska, including costs, from the first year of operation (1885); see 55 Cong., 2 sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 137, Report on Schools in Alaska (serial 3599).
22Op. cit.; also 52 Cong., 1 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1891, pp. 923-60 (serial 2939).
23Education in Alaska, p. 34.
24An official report very critical of Jackson's administration of schools in Alaska was written by Frank Churchill, special Interior Department investigator in 1906: 59 Cong., 1 sess., Sen. Doc. 483, pp. 66, 170 (serial 4931).
25Reported in Henderson, "Development of Education," pp. 124-26.
2655 Cong., 2 sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 137, Report on Schools in Alaska, pp. 12-13 (serial 3599).
28Priest, Uncle Sam's Stepchildren, section IV; 52 Cong., 2 sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1892, appendix (serial 3088).
29Op. cit.; the commissioner wrote that he considered contracting "unwise because using public funds for sectarian purposes, which is contrary to the spirit of the Constitution." (p. 56).
3155 Cong., 2 sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 137. Report on Schools in Alaska (serial 3599).