1. The works of early European and European-American
explorers. It should be clear these individuals are not discovering
the land and waters as Native people are already present. The Europeans
and European- Americans are discovering the ignorance of their ancestors
about these places.
2. Russians, Yankee Whalers, missionaries, miners,
adventurers, and traders. Concerning Alaska Native people these
texts range from genuine interest to viewing us as curiosities to
3. Government reports, documents, accounts by Alaska
teachers. By the early 1880's the government documents, including
census and annual reports of teachers become significant sources of
information. They tell some indirect information about Alaska Native
people. More importantly these texts cast light on the perspectives,
policies and practices of the European-Americans in Alaska. The teacher
accounts are generally not about their teaching or what they are trying
to teach. (Tisha is an exception) The teacher texts are normally
about adventure and the Alaska Native communities in which they work
4. Anthropological works. These works often
contain valuable information about traditional life and practices.
At the same time it is important to recognize these texts are written
with a professional agenda. The texts often tell more about the period
and school of anthropology of the author than about traditional practices
and beliefs. At times the arrogance of some anthropologists is matched
only by some Alaskan missionaries.
5. Federal Indian law and policy. Most European
-Americans and, tragically, many Alaska Natives are not acquainted
with the history of Federal Indian law and policy. Alaska Natives
are Native Americans under U.S. law. We are dual citizens. We are
citizens of our tribes and, since 1924, citizens of the United States.
This status predates and is incorporated into the U.S. Constitution.
Federal Indian law has important implications for the lives of Alaska
Natives and other Native Americans today.
6. Alaska Native and Native American authors.
This last category includes Senungetuk, Bigjim, Erdrich, Deloria,
Oquilluk, Dorris, Barsh, Green, Wells, etc. These texts are important
as they provide inside perspectives and indicate the variety of viewpoints
represented within the Native community. It was not until college
that I was even made aware of Native American authors. For Alaska
Native students to graduate from public schools ignorant of our histories,
our organizations and our own authors is to miseducate the next generation.
It can and should be different. This bibliography is intended to support
making such a difference.
I should also note that many of the texts included
may be currently out of print. I suggest Powell Books of Portland, Oregon,
as well as other used book stores, to locate these texts. Other texts
may be located by contacting the publisher.
I hope later editions of this bibliography will benefit
further from the suggestions of veteran scholars and from the Native
* Alaska Federation of Natives, The AFN Report
on the Status of Alaska Natives: A Call For Action. Anchorage,
Alaska, 1989. An important report on the social issues facing Alaska
Allen, Arthur James. A Whaler and Trader in the
Arctic Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1978. Memoirs
of a long time resident of the Arctic Slope region. Mentions the names
of whalers whose names continue to be a part of the region, Bodfish,
Hopson, Brower, Leavitt, Allen, Hadley, etc.. He also describes in
passing the segregation of the whaling crews by whites, colored, and
Native - an unfortunate legacy.
* Paula Gunn Allen editor. Spider Womans
Granddaughters New York, New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1989. "Traditional
tales and contemporary writing by Native American women." American
Horse by Louise Erdrich is a powerful example of the authors
work. It should serve as a welcome introduction for anyone who has
missed The Crown of Columbus ( Co-authored with Michael Dorris.
), Beet Queen, Tracks, Jacklight, etc..
Armond, Dale de. The Seal Oil Lamp San Francisco,
California: Sierra Club Books, 1988. A childrens story based
on an Alaska Native legend.
Armstrong, Terence, George Rogers and Graham Rowley.
The Circumpolar North London, Great Britain: Methuen &
Co Ltd., 1978. A dated survey of the politics and economics of the
* Arnold, Robert. Alaska Native Land Claims
Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Native Foundation, 1978. Though dated, a
key text about the politics of the Native land claims in Alaska. Out
Barsh, Russel, James Henderson. The Road Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1980. An alternative interpretation
and argument of Indian policy written by an Indian attorney.
Bataille, Gretchen M. and Kathleen Mullen Sands. American
Indian Women Telling Their Lives Lincoln, Nebraska: University
of Nebraska Press, 1984. A study that argues, what should be obvious,
Native American women and their roles are crucial to Native American
societies. A significant bibliography is also included.
* Berger, Thomas R. A Long and Terrible Shadow:
White Values, Native Rights in the Americas 1492-1992 Seattle,
Washington: University of Washington Press 1991. A thoughtful and
passionate critique of the history of white Europeans and Native Americans.
A powerful essay.
Berger, Thomas. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland:
The Report of the MacKenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry Toronto, Canada,
1977. A study of the cultural, economic, and environmental assessment
of the region including Native claims. A historic study.
* Berger, Thomas R. Village Journey New York,
New York: Hill and Wang, 1985. A key text about the effects of the
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act on Alaska Native villages. It
is extensive in quoting Alaska Native perspectives gathered from throughout
* Berkhofer, Robert, Jr. The White Man's Indian
New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1978. A classic on the perceptions
and images that have defined the views of white people about Native
Americans as seen in literature.
* Bigjim, Fred. Sinrock Portland, Oregon: Press-22,
1983. Poetry by an Inuit from Northwest Alaska.
* Bigjim, Frederick & James Ito-Adler. Letters to Howard Anchorage, Alaska:
Alaska Methodist University Press, 1974. Early concerns about the
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act written as letters to the editor
from fictional characters.
Boas, Franz. The Central Eskimo Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press, 1964. Reprint of the work of one of
the leading early anthropologists.
* Bodfish, Waldo. Kusiq. Fairbanks, Alaska:
University of Alaska Press, 1991. A personal account of life in the
North Slope of Alaska by an Inuit elder.
Boeri, David. People of the Ice Whale New York,
New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. A journalist who was a
guest in an Alaskan Saint Lawerence Island community and then wrote
a text without inviting community comment on the text before publishing.
* Bowden, Henry Warner. American Indians and Christian
Missions Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
An analysis of the cultural encounters between Christian missionaries
and Native American communities and religions. Well written.
Briggs, Jean. Never In Anger Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, 1970. An anthropologist describes the child
rearing practices of an Inuit family.
Brodeur, Paul. Restitution: Land Claims of Mashpee,
Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot Indians of New England Boston, Massachusetts:
Northeastern University Press, 1985. The title is self explanatory.
Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams New York, New
York: Pantheon Press, 1981. An anthropologist encounters a powerful
and troubling experience among a Canadian Indian tribe.
* Brody, Hugh. Living Arctic Seattle, Washington:
University of Washington Press, 1987. A white Canadian account of
the pressures faced by the Natives of Arctic Canada.
* Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee
New York, New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1970. Modern classic
that details how the west was taken.
* Brown, Emily Ivanoff (Ticasuk). The Longest Story
Ever Told Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Pacific University, 1981.
An Inuit who has written a version of a traditional tale in English.
Brown, Joseph Epes, editor. The Sacred Pipe Black
Elk's Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux New York,
New York: Penguin Books, 1971.
Brower, Charles D.. Fifty Years Below Zero
Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1994 (reprint). Originally
published in 1942. An adventurer's account of his own life and what
he witnessed in the North Slope region of Alaska.
Carlson, Gerald F. Two on the Rocks New York,
New York: Van Rees Press, 1966. Represents a typical lower states
account of adventuring as a teacher in Alaska.
Casa, Bartolome de las. The Devastation of
the Indies Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press,
1992. A reprinted English translation of an important text in Native
American-European history. Written in 1552, this Spanish priest argues
in defense of the humanity of the Indians and condemns the genocidal
acts of the Spanish "Christians". The writing of an angry
* Case, David S. Alaska Natives & Alaska Laws
Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1984. A major work
on the legal status of Alaska Natives.
* Chance, Norman A.. The Inupiat and Arctic Alaska:
An Ethnography of Development Fort Worth, Texas: Holt, Rhinehart
and Winston 1990. An important text about the transformation of life
in the North Slope area of Alaska.
Chapman, Abraham editor. Literature of the American
Indians: Views and Interpretations New York, New York: New American
* Chasan, Daniel Jack. Klondike 70: The Alaskan
Oil Boom New York, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971. An account
of the social and political circumstances in Alaska just prior to
the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.
Chasan, Daniel Jack. Up For Grabs Seattle,
Washington: Madrona Pub., Inc., 1977. A series of essays including
topics about Indian treaty rights.
Cheney, Theodore A. Rees. Living in Polar Regions
New York, New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. A general introduction to
Arctic people and living conditions.
Cline, Michael S.. Tannik School The Impact of
Education on the Eskimos of Anaktuvuk Pass Anchorage, Alaska:
Alaska Methodist University Press, 1975. The author might have reconsidered
the title. Inuit were educated long before contact with Europeans.
I think he meant the impact of schools which is a very different thing.
* Clinton, Robert, Nell Newton, and Monroe Price.
American Indian Law Charlottesville, Virginia: Bobbs-Merrill
Company Inc., 1990. By far the best introduction about the legal status
of Native Americans in the United States.
* Cohen, Fay G. Treaties on Trial Seattle,
Washington: University of Washington Press, 1986. A defense of the
Indian treaty rights concerning salmon in Washington state.
Collier, John Jr. Alaskan Eskimo Education, A Film
Analysis of Cultural Confrontation in the Schools New York, New
York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1973. An anthropological
Condon, Richard G. The Northern Copper Inuit: A
History Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
The work of elder interviews underlying the text and the extensive
use of quotations of elders and other Inuit is a genuine strength.
I found it extremely frustrating to read about persons, elders, hunters,
traders, missionaries, etc. and have them disappear without mention
of what became of them. The reader should value what is to be gained
from reading this text while realizing it is a history written by
Coon, Carleston S., The Hunting Peoples New
York, New York: Nick Lyons Books, 1971. An informed comparative survey
of traditional hunting societies.
Cornwall, Peter G. and Gerald McBeath editor. Alaska's
Rural Development Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1982.
A series of academic papers.
Cronon, William. Changes in the Land New York,
New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.
* Damas, David editor. Arctic Volume 5 of the
Handbook of North American Indians Washington D.C.: Smithsonian
Institute, 1984. Required text for any serious student of the scholarship
about Arctic people.
Darnell, Frank and Anton Hoëm. Taken to Extremes
Education in the Far North Cambridge, Massachsetts, 1996. ISBN
82-00-22588-7 A current text on a neglected topic. The authors take
a historical approach to the establishment of schools in the Far North.
It does not include Northern Russia or Siberia. The section on Alaska
education should be of value to any teacher in Northern Alaskan education.
* Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard. Haa Shuka
Our Ancestors Tlingit Oral Narratives Seattle, Washington: University
of Washington Press, 1987. Remarkable scholarship and effort are evident
in preserving a written version of these narratives from southeast
Debo, Angie. The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic
Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Originally published
in 1934. A careful and ground breaking work.
* DeJong, David. Promises of the Past: A History
of American Indian Education Golden, Colorado: North American
Press, 1983. The only readable and informative survey of the topic
of which I am aware.
Deloria Jr, Vine and Clifford Lytle. American Indian,
American Justice Austin, Texas: Texas University Press, 1983.
This is a surprisingly sympathetic portrayal of Federal Indian Law
by a leading author in the field.
* Deloria, Vine Custer Died For Your Sins Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988. Classic and biting
critique of how Indians are seen and dealt with by white America.
Reprint of the text written in the 1960s.
Deloria Jr., Vine. Of Utmost Good Faith New
York, New York: Bantam Books, 1971. Documents and arguments against
the Federal government taking of Indian lands and refusal to honor
Dippie, Brian W. The Vanishing American: White
Attitudes and U.S. Policy Middleton, Connecticut: Wesleyan University
Dmytryshyn, Basil, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughn. The
End of the Russian America: Captain P.N. Golovin's Last Report, 1862
Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society, 1979. Publication of
an original document.
Dockstader, Frederick and Alice Dockstader. The
American Indian in Graduate Studies New York: Museum of the American
Indian Heye Foundation, 1973-74. A bibliography of graduate thesis
* Dorris, Michael. The Broken Cord ,Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Harper & Row, 1989. A personal account trying to understand
the effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on Indian children,
families, and communities. The author, a Modoc, also wrote A Yellow
Raft on Blue Water, a fiction of the lives of Native American
women from three generations. He co-authored a bestseller with Louise
Erdrich, The Crown of Columbus.
Driscoll, Joseph. War Discovers Alaska Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: J.P. Lippincott, 1943. A journalist visits Alaska during
the war and describes, among other things, racism in the territory.
Drucker, Philip. Cultures of the North Pacific
Coast New York, New York: Chandler Publishing Co., 1965. An anthropological
Dumond, Donald E.. The Eskimos and Aleuts London,
Great Britain: Thames and Hudson, Limited, 1977. An anthropological
and archaeological interpretation of Inuit and Aleut history.
Eastman, Charles A.. Indian Boyhood New York,
New York: Dover Publications, 1971. A reprint of a work originally
published in 1902. Written from the perspective of an individual who
has accepted a social darwinistic and yet romantic image of the Lakota
as noble savages.
Fedorova, Svetlana. Ethnic Processes in Russian
America Anchorage, Alaska: Anchorage Historical Fine Arts Museum,
1975. A description of the social structure of Russian-America. Worthwhile
Fejes, Claire. The People of the Noatak New
York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. An artist recounts her perspectives
as a visitor to the region.
Felman, Susan. The Story Telling Stone New
York, New York: Dell Publishing, 1965. An anthology of traditional
Native American myths and tales.
* Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Nelson Island Eskimos
Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1983. An anthropological
* Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Real People and the
Children of Thunder Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press,
1991. A thoughtful interpretation of early Moravian mission encounters
in southwest Alaska among the Yupik.
Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Yupik Eskimos
Kingston, Canada: Limestone Press, 1988. A selection of readings from
the Kilbuck collection. The Kilbucks were early missionaries and teachers
in southwest Alaska. The perspectives of missionaries about the "civilizing
process", education, and accounts of the people are important.
Finger, John R.. Cherokee Americans; The Eastern
Band in the Twentieth Century Lincoln, Nebraska: University of
Nebraska Press, 1991. An account of the modern history of the Cherokee
who avoided the removal of the 1830s to Oklahoma. Written with clarity
Fitzhugh, William and Aaron Crowell Crossroads
of Continents; Cultures of Siberia and Alaska Kingsport, Tennessee:
Arcata Graphics 1988 . Accompanied an exhibit on the topic.
* Fitzhugh, William W. and Susan A. Kaplan. Inua
Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo Washington D.C.: Smithsonian
Institution Press 1982. An ethnographic interpretation of traditional
beliefs written to accompany an exhibit of western Alaska artifacts
collected at the turn of the century by Edward Nelson.
* Fortier, Ed. One Survived Anchorage, Alaska:
Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1979. A true story of surviving on the
sea ice by a King Island Inuit.
* Fortuine, Robert. Chills and Fevers Fairbanks,
Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1992. A history of western diseases
and medicine among Alaska Natives. Required reading.
*Frideres, James S.. Native Peoples in Canada Contemporary
Conflicts Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1988.
Inuit, Athabascans, Tsimshians, Mohawk and other Native people have
been divided by the Canadian-United States border. The treatment,
misunderstandings, politics, socioeconomic issues, and policies transcend
* Gallagher, H.G.. Etok: A Story of Eskimo Power
New York, New York: G.P. Putman and Sons, 1974. Biography of Charles
Edwardsen Jr., a political leader from the Arctic Slope of Alaska.
Giffen, Naomi. The Roles of Men and Women in Eskimo
Culture Chicago, Illinois: Chicago University Press, 1930. An
early anthropological study.
Giddings, J. Louis Ancient Men of the Arctic
New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. An archaeological pioneer
in Northwest Alaska.
* Gilbert, Bill. God Gave Us This Country New
York, New York: Doubleday, 1989. Life and efforts of early Indian
leaders resisting White taking of their land .
Graburn, Nelson H. H.. Eskimos Without Igloos
Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1969. Anthropological
study of Canadian Inuit.
* Gray, Minnie, Tupou L. Pulu, Angeline Newlin, Ruth
Ramoth-Sampson. Taimaknaqtat Old Beliefs Anchorage, Alaska:
National Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1981. Old beliefs
translated from Northwest Alaska Native elder conferences. Out of
* Green, Paul. I am Eskimo Juneau, Alaska:
Alaska Northwest Publishing Co., 1959. An elder writing about tradition
and change in Northwest Alaska.
Gruening, Ernest. The State of Alaska New York,
New York: Random House, 1968. A former senator writes his account
of Alaska history.
Hadwen, Seymore and Lawerence J. Palmer. Reindeer
In Alaska Seattle, Washington: The Shorey Bookstore, 1967. One
of a number facsimile reproductions that the Shorey Bookstore has
done of texts about Alaska. This is a reprint of a 1922 Department
of Agriculture bulletin.
Hagan, William T. American Indians Chicago,
Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1961. A survey of Indian white
relations. As a third edition, it is a standard text. The new edition
includes a brief annotated bibliography.
Haig - Brown, Celia. Resistance and Renewal: Surviving
the Indian Residential School Vancover, British Columbia, Canada:
Arsenal Pulp Press, 1993. A study of a Canadian Indian boarding school
operated by a Catholic order with Canadian federal funding. I include
and recommend this text as Alaska Native boarding schools have yet
to receive this kind of important scholarly attention.
Hall, Edwin T.. The Eskimo Storyteller Folktales
From Noatak, Alaska Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee
Press, 1975. Powerful stories that seem muffled by the translations
which read with an unfortunate woodeness.
* Hall, Sam. The Forth World New York, New
York: Vintage Press, 1987. A journalist account of Inuit and Sammi
conflicts with European dominated nations.
Hamilton, J. Taylor and Kenneth G. Hamilton. History
of the Moravian Church Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Interprovincial
Board of Christian Education Moravian Church of America, 1967. Missionary
contact and work among Native Americans has been intense and of significant
impact. The Moravians have a long history of such work. Their work
in southwest Alaska among the Yupik is a crucial part of the history
of the region. Although this text presents that history in a very
favorable light it provides much information with which to begin a
study of the topic.
Henning, Robert et al. The Kotzebue Basin Edmonds,
Washington: Alaska Geographic, 1981. Includes articles on the history,
contact period and current issues in the region.
Herbert, Wally. Eskimo New York, New York:
Collins Publishers, 1976 Anthropological study with an emphasis on
Honingmann, John J. and Irma. Eskimo Townsmen
Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology, 1965. Anthropological
study of Frobisher Inuit in the modern period.
Hornung, Rick. One Nation Under The Gun Inside
The Mohawk Civil War Toronto, Canada: Stoddart Publishing Co.,
1991. A journalist account of the dynamics, both internal and external,
of division among the Mohawk.
* Hoxie, Fredrick E. A Final Promise: A Campaign
to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 Lincoln, Nebraska: University
of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Hughes, Charles C., Eskimo Boyhood Louisville,
Kentucky: The University of Kentucky Press, 1974. I have no use for
the psychobabble at the end but the life story of the Siberian Yupik
boy is clearly described.
Hunt, William R. Arctic Passage New York, New
York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1975. The perspective of some euro-American
interests in exploiting the Arctic.
Jenness, Diamond. Eskimo Administration: I. Alaska
Technical Paper No. 10 Arctic Institute of North America: Washington
DC, USA, 1962. The title is NOT about Native administrators. A call
more effective means for assimiliating Eskimo. The language is difficult
to read..."stone age, primitive, etc." and yet important
in how it reflects the thinking of important policy makers at the
time. He includes a perceptive quote of Laughlin, 1950 "...Without
exception the teachers appear to arrive without advance instruction
concerning the people, their economy, language, or history. This makes
the duty of the teacher very difficult..." p. 30. Educational
administrators today are no better on this count.
* Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America
New York, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1975. Revisionist history
of early Native American- European contact.
* Jones, Dorothy M. Aleuts in Transition Seattle,
Washington: University of Washington Press, 1976. An anthropological
study of two Aleut communities in transition.
Jones, Dorothy. The Urban Native Encounters The
Social Service System Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska,
1974. A small study about an important topic.
Jones, Suzi editor. Eskimo Dolls Anchorage,
Alaska: Alaska State Council of the Arts, 1982. Written to accompany
an exhibit on Native doll making.
Jordan, Winthrop. The White Man's Burden London,
Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 1974.
Kamenskii, Fr. Anatolii. Tlingit Indians of Alaska
Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1985. Translation of
the work of an early Orthodox missionary. An important text.
* Kaplan, Lawrence J.. Inupiaq and the Schools
Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Department of Education, 1989 Intended to inform
teachers about Native languages and issues. Brief and clear discussion
on the history, current status and educational issues about this and
other Native languages.
Keithahn, Edward Alaskan Igloo Tales Anchorage,
Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1974. A sanitized English version
of Inuit legends.
Keithahn, Edward. Eskimo Adventure Seattle,
Washington: Superior Publishers Company, 1963. One of the better written
adventure stories of teaching in Alaska.
Kelly, Lawrence. The Assault on Assimilation
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983. An important study
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the 1920s. The text focuses
on John Collier as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
* Kizzia, Tom. The Wake of the Unseen Object
New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1991. Journalist essays
of visits to rural Alaska by a resident of the city of Anchorage.
Kleinfeld, Judith. A Long Way From Home Fairbanks,
Alaska: Center for Northern Educational Research, 1973. A study of
the discontinued state regional boarding programs for Alaska Native
high school students.
Kleinfeld, Judith S., G. Williamson McDiarmid and
David Hagstrom. Alaskas Small Rural High Schools Anchorage,
Alaska: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1985. A study of
the small rural high schools that were created in the 1970s
and early 1980s in Alaska.
Kleinfeld, Judith S.. Eskimo School on the Andreafsky
New York, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988. A description about
St. Marys High School, a Catholic boarding school, since closed,
that served Native students from rural Alaska.
Krause, Aurel. The Tlingit Indians Seattle,
Washington: University of Washington, 1956. Translation of an expeditionary
report of a German explorer who visited Alaska and wrote in the 1880s.
* Krauss, Michael. Alaska Native Languages Past,
Present, and Future Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language
Center, 1980. Historical and modern circumstances of Alaska Native
Krupat, Arnold. The Voice in the Margin Native
American Literature and the Canon Berkeley, California: University
of California Press, 1989. A part of the cultural literacy debate.
* Kwachka, Patricia. Theata 87 volume
12 Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska, 1987. Articles and essays
written by Alaska Native students at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks
on a variety of topics concerning Alaska Native life and societies.
* Lamb, May Wynne Life In Alaska Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press, 1988. One of the better stories of pioneer
teaching in Alaska.
* Langdon, Steve J.. The Native People of Alaska
Anchorage, Alaska: Greatland Graphics, 1987. A brief and relatively
inexpensive introduction to the anthropological understanding of Alaska
* Lauritzen, Philip. Oil and Amulets. ? Breakwater
Books, 1979. A white journalist describes some of the issues facing
Lazarus, Edward. Black Hills, White Justice
New York, New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991. A presentation
of the legal and historical rights of the Lakota to the Black Hills.
Lazell, J. Arthur. Alaskan Apostle: Sheldon Jackson
New York: Harper & Row, 1960. A commemorative biography of a key
Protestant missionary and the first Commissioner of Education for
the territory of Alaska.
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest
The Unbroken Past of the West New York, New York : W.W. Norton
and Company 1987. An original economic analysis of the history of
the American West including the history of Native American relations
Llorente, Segundo. Memoirs of a Yukon Priest
Washington D.C.: Georgetown, University Press, 1990. A part of the
second wave of Catholic priests in Alaska. He served in Alaska from
1935-1975. He was also a member of the Alaska House of Representatives.
Lopez, Barry. Arctic Dreams New York, New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986. A powerfully written personal perspective
of how one euroamerican views the Arctic.
Lowenstein, Tom. Eskimo Poems from Canada and Greenland
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh, 1973. Often poetry
does not translate well. This translation sustains poetic power.
Lund, Annabel. Heartbeat: World Eskimo Indian Olympics
Juneau, Alaska: Fairweather Press, 1986. Well illustrated and written
text about traditional Alaska Native games and why they are vital
aspects of our lives today.
* Macbeth, Angus. Personal Justice Denied Washington
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982. Includes the Aleut removal
and internment in camps during World War II.
Mander, Jerry. In The Absence Of The Sacred
San Francisco, California: Sierra Books, 1991. The author critiques
several assumptions of modern society and then examines the consequences
in light of Native American societies.
Mangusso, Mary, and Stephen Haycox. Interpreting
Alaskas History: An Anthology. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska
Pacific University Press, 1989. Includes some articles that provide
a perspective on some topics that affect Alaska Natives. Includes
descriptions of Alaska Natives to obtain citizenship, end segregation
and the lower pay scale of Alaska Native commercial fishermen.
* Marston, Muktuk. Men of the Tundra. New York,
New York: October House, Inc., 1972. The story of the establishment
of the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II. This organization
had, and through the successor units, continues to have important
social and cultural influences in many Alaska Native communities.
Martin, Calvin editor. The American Indian and
the Problem of History London: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Several essays about historical interpretation and American Indians
by historians, Indians, and Indian historians.
Matthiessen, Peter. In the Spirit of Crazy Horse
New York, New York: Viking Press, 1991. An interpretation of the conflict
between the United States government, particularly the Federal Bureau
of Investigation, and the American Indian Movement.
* Matthiessen, Peter. Indian Country New York,
New York: Penguin, 1992. A personal account by the author of his effort
to understand the present conflicts between Indians and the Federal
* McBeath, Gerald A. & Thomas A. Morehouse. The
Dynamics of Alaska Native Self-Government Lanham, Maryland: University
Press of America, 1980. Study that examines Alaska Native politics
in the modern period with an emphasis on the Arctic Slope region.
McDiarmid, G. Williamson, Judith Kleinfeld and William
Parrett. The Inventive Mind Portraits of Rural Alaska Teachers
Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1988. Includes a description
of an Alaska Native teacher. It is disappointing to read little of
the direct comments and ideas of the teachers themselves.
McGregor, James. The Wounded Knee Massacre
Rapid City, South Dakota: Fenwyn Press, 1940. Indian oral traditions
about the events described.
* McLuhan, T.C., Touch the Earth New York,
New York: Promontory Press, 1971. Speeches by Native Americans with
*McNickle, Darcy. Native American Tribalism
Oxford, Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 1993. Reprint. The
best introductory text I have encountered. An Indian author and historian
who wrote clearly with a perceptive sense of how to engage both first
time readers and scholars with key issues in Native American history.
McPhee, John. Coming into the Country New York,
New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976. About Alaska with some
discussion of Alaska Native issues.
Merkur, Daniel. Powers Which We Do Not Know
Moscow , Idaho: University of Idaho Press, 1991. A survey of research
about traditional Inuit religious beliefs.
Metayer, Maurice ed. and trans.. I, Nuligak
New York, New York: Pocket Books, 1972. Canadian Inuit describing
his life during the transitional period of modern contact.
Metraux, Alfred, translated by George Ordish. The
History of the Incas New York: Schocken Books, 1970. Challenges
many stereotypes about Native Americans .
Meyer, Carolyn. Eskimos New York, New York:
Athenaeum, 1977. Fictional representation of Yupik "Eskimo"
life in the 1960s.
Michener, James A. Alaska New York, New York:
Random House, 1988. Popular history and fiction blended.
* Miner, H. Craig. The Corporation and the Indian
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976. An important
text as all but one of the Native communities in Alaska are now represented
by village and/or regional corporations under the Alaska Native Claims
* Mitchell, John G. The Hunt New York, New
York: Penguin Books, 1981. Hunting and views of hunting discussed,
including modern subsistence hunting being done by Alaska Natives.
Morgan, Lael chief editor. Alaskas Native
Peoples Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Geographic Press, 1979. A coffee
table introduction to the history and current circumstances of Alaska
Native people. Many color photographs.
* Morgan, Lael. Art and Eskimo Power The life and
times of Alaskan Howard Rock Fairbanks, Alaska: Epicenter Press,
1988. Howard Rock was the founding editor of the only statewide Alaska
Native newspaper. He also played a vital part in pressing for Alaska
Native claims to traditional land.
Morehouse, Thomas A.. The Alaska Native Claims
Settlement Act, 1991, and Tribal Government Anchorage, Alaska:
Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1988. Useful introduction
to the issues and some of the positions taken. Now a historical document.
Mowat, Farley. The Desperate People New York,
New York: Bantam Books, 1981. One of a number of texts written by
a popular Canadian author.
Murdoch, John. Ethnological Results of the Point
Barrow Expedition Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press,
1988. Reprint of an early and important scientific exploration of
*Nabokov, Peter. Native American Testimony 1492-1992
New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1992. A valuable source of Native
American perspectives about Indian-white relations.
* Napoleon, Harold. Yuuyaraq: The Way of the Human
Being Fairbanks, Alaska: Publications Center for Cross-Cultural
Studies, 1991. Painful analysis by a former Alaska Native leader as
to why social structures in rural Alaska are stressed. Thought provoking.
Naske, Claus M. An Interpretative History of Alaskan
Statehood Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Pub. Co., 1973.
Alaska history told as a commemorative of the euroamerican pioneers.
Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks New York,
New York: Pocket Books, 1972. Important text and at the center of
questions about who should copyright tribal history and culture.
* Nelson, Edward William. The Eskimo About Bering
Strait Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1983. Paper
back with illustrations and photographs. A wealth of material and
descriptions of Native cultures during the early contact period.
Nelson, Richard K. Make Prayers to the Raven
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1983. Descriptive
essay about Athabascan world views and understandings. A videotape
series accompanies the text.
Nelson, Richard, Kathleen Mautner, Ray G. Bane. Tracks
in the Wilderness Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska-Fairbanks,
1982. A national park funded study that includes important information
based on interviews of elders in the region.
* Nelson, Richard. K. Shadow of the Hunter
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1980. A fictional
but carefully written text of Inupiat life in Northwest Alaska in
the early 1960s.
Niatum, Duane. Harpers Anthology of 20th
Century Native American Poetry San Francisco, California: HarperCollins
Publishers, 1988. Some excellent poetry.
Oleksa, Michael editor. Alaska Missionary Spirituality
New York, New York: Paulist Press, 1987. The introduction is a clear,
brief summary of the history of the Orthodox Church in Alaska.
Olsson, Karl A.. By One Spirit Chicago, Illinois
Covenant Press, 1984. A history of the Covenant Church of America
including the mission work in Alaska. A key text in understanding
the history of Northwest Alaska.
* Oman, Lela Kiana. Eskimo Legends Anchorage,
Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1975. Printed versions
of tales told to the author.
* O'Neil, Dan. The Firecracker Boys New York,
New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. A history of the how the federal
government considered exploding a series of nuclear bombs south of
Pt. Hope, Alaska and how the project was stopped. The people and community
of Pt. Hope can be proud of that generation of leadership and the
efforts of their community.
Ongtooguk, Paul editor. ANCSA: Selected Student
Readings Kotzebue, Alaska: Northwest Arctic Borough School District,
1987 Documents about the Alaska Native settlement of land claims.
* Oquilluk, William A. People of Kauwerak Anchorage,
Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1973. Originally the oral
history of a muit or "group" of Alaskan Inupiat which he
then wrote with the assistance of a university researcher.
* Oswalt, Wendall H.. Bashful No Longer Norman,
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. An anthropological and
historical survey of Southwest Alaska Natives from 1778 to 1988. Includes
historic responses of Yupik and Chupik peoples to modern issues.
Oswalt, Wendall H.. Eskimos and Explorers Novato,
California: Chandler and Sharp Publishers, 1979. An author with a
long involvement in Alaska anthropology.
Oswalt, Wendall H.. Napaskiak An Alaska Eskimo
Community Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1963. Anthropological
study of a Southwest Alaska Native community.
Pagden, Anthony. The Fall of Natural Man. London,
Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1982. The place of Native
Americans in the imagination of euroamericans.
Pearce, Roy Harvey. Savagism & Civilization
Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1988. An important
description of cultural views of euroamericans about the First Peoples
of North America.
* Pevar, Stephen L.. The Rights of Indians and
Tribes Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press,
1992. Concise, inexpensive paperback introduction to key aspects of
Federal Indian Law.
Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy
Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1962. More sympathetic
to the Federal policy makers than I believe justified. Important to
note why these policies makers thought as they did without accepting
* Prucha, Francis Paul Americanizing the American
Indian Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1973. Primary
documents of the influential "Friends of the Indians" from
1880-1900. In the words of the founder of the Carlisle Industrial
School for Indians their efforts were to "Kill the Indian in
him and save the man". The debate, concern and efforts of these
leaders of U.S. Indian policy was how best to assimilate Indians and
destroy the tribes. The Dawes Act is well framed by these selections.
* Prucha, Francis Paul. Documents in United State's
Indian Policy Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press,
1975. The best ready source of primary government documents about
Federal Indian policy.
Prucha, Francis Paul. Great Father Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
*Prucha, Francis Paul. The Indians in American
Society Berkeley, California: University of California Press,
1985. A summary interpretation of Federal Indian policy in which I
believe the author is often an apologist for the "The Great Father".
Still necessary reading for an informed view about Federal-Indian
* Pulu, Tupou and Ruth Ramoth-Sampson editors. Maniilaq
Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center,
Anchorage, Alaska, 1981. Elders describe the life and predictions
of a seer during the time just prior to contact in Northwest Alaska.
* Pulu, Tupou L., Ruth Ramoth-Sampson and Angeline
Newlin. Whaling: A Way of Life Anchorage, Alaska: National
Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1980. A text based on interviews
of elders from Point Hope, Alaska. Only five hundred printed.
Ramoth-Sampson, Ruth. trans. Unipchaallu Uqaaqtuallu
II Legends and Stories Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials
Development Center, 1976. Transcribed from elder conferences held
in Kotzebue, Alaska. Out of print.
* Ramoth-Sampson, Ruth editor. Stories of the Black
River People Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development
Center, 1980. Stories of an Upper Kobuk elder written in a bilingual
Rasmussen, Knud. Eskimo Poems from Canada &
Greenland Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University Pittsburgh Press,
* Ray, Charles. A Program of Education for Alaska
Natives rev. ed. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press,
1959. Includes a historical overview of Alaska Native education and
policy proposals that influenced a generation of Alaska Natives education.
Ray, Charles. Alaska Native Secondary School Dropouts:
A Research Report Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press,
1962. An important early report of Alaska Native dropouts in three
diverse Alaska Native communities.
Ray, Dorothy Jean. The Eskimos of the Bering Strait
1650-1898 Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press,
1975. A standard work of historical anthropology.
Ray, Dorothy Jean. Artists of the Tundra and the
Sea Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1980.
An anthropologist describing traditional and transitional art of Alaska
Native people, especially in the Northwest of Alaska.
* Renner, Louis L. S.J. Pioneer Missionary to the
Bering Strait Eskimos: Bellarmine Lafortune, S.J. Portland, Oregon:
Binford and Mort Publishing, 1979. A well written account of the life
of a key missionary in Northwest Alaska. A commemorative history.
Renner, Louis L. The KNOM/Father Jim Poole Story
Portland, Oregon: Binford & Mort Publishing, 1985. Another commemorative
of a Catholic missionary in Northwest Alaska. Father Poole is best
known as the founder of the Catholic radio station in Nome, Alaska.
Roberts, Arthur O. Tomorrow is Growing Old
Newberg, Oregon: Barclay Press, 1978. A very uneven account of the
impact of the Friends Church mission in Northwest Alaska.
Rogers, Jean. Good-bye, My Island New York,
New York: Greenwillow Books, 1983. Childrens story about the
community of King Island, Alaska leaving the community and relocating
Ross, W. Gillies. Whaling and Eskimos: Hudson Bay
1860-1915 Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man, 1975. Hopefully
this will inspire some scholar to do something similar among the whaling
communities of Northwest Alaska.
* Sando, Joe. Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of
Pueblo Indian History Santa Fe, New Mexico: Clear Light Publishers,
1992. Written by a Pueblo scholar. The text challenges conventional
history and perspectives. The author also includes modern issues and
biographical sketches of several Pueblo leaders.
* Sandoz, Mari. Crazy Horse Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska Press, 1992. A 50th anniversary reprint of
a classic text about a remarkable leader.
* Satz, Ronald N. American Indian Policy in the
Jacksonian Era Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press,
1975. An important text about an important time in Federal-Indian
Schwalbe, Anna. Dayspring on the Kuskokwim
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Department of Publications, Moravian Church
of America, 1985. The Moravian church undertook the mission work in
Southwest Alaska at the request of Sheldon Jackson. This is a commemorative
history of the early work.
* Senungetuk, J.E. Give or Take a Century San
Francisco, California: The Indian Historian Press, 1971. An autobiography
full of insight. I hope more Alaska Natives will write their personal
perspectives on our lives and circumstances.
* Senungetuk, Vivian and Paul Tiulana. A Place
for Winter: Paul Tiulana's Story Anchorage, Alaska: The CIRI Foundation,
1987. The life story of an important King Island elder. Includes both
traditional and modern life issues and history. Illustrated with remarkable
photographs taken by Father Bernard Hubbard, S.J. in 1938-39.
Sherwood, Morgan B. Exploration of Alaska: 1865-1900
New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1965. Pioneer and commemorative
Simeone, William. A History of Alaskan Athapaskans
Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Historical Commission, 1982. Brief anthropological
and historical study done by a Canadian scholar.
Spencer, Robert F. The North Alaskan Eskimo
New York, New York: Dover Publishers, Inc., 1976. Classic anthropological
study of the 1950s reprinted.
Spicer, Edward H.. A Short History of the Indians
of the United States New York, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company,
1969. Brief, dated but useful introductory text with selected readings.
Sprecht, Robert. Tisha New York, New York:
Bantam Books, 1976. The account of a white woman teacher in Chicken,
Alaska in 1927. She learns to live with the community while challenging
Steffansson, Vilhjalmur . My Life With The
Eskimo Collier Books New York, New York, 1971. A classic in Arctic
adventure/exploration literature written about a four year expedition
Steven, Hugh. Good Broth to Warm our Bones
Westchester, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1982. A commemorative account
of the work by an Alaska Native and a missionary in producing a written
form of Inupiat or Northern Eskimo.
*Stocking, Jr., George W. Race, Culture, and Evolution
Essays in the History of Anthropology Chicago, Illinois: University
of Chicago Press, 1982. Reprint of a now classic text originally published
in 1968. Native Americans have long been victims, subjects and objects
of the anthropological community. This text allows a reader to understand
many assumptions and the perspectives that shaped early anthropologists
and the profession.
Stuck, Hudson. The Alaskan Mission of the Episcopal
Church Seattle, Washington: The Shorey Bookstore, 1968. A facsimile
reproduction of a text originally published in 1920 by one of the
missionaries of the church. It is important for anyone interested
in Native American communities to understand not only why we have
changed but in what directions. Agents of change bring perspectives
about Native American communities and individuals. These views have
had and continue to have an impact on our lives.
The Tungavik and Tom Siddon. Agreement Between
the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area and Her Majesty the Queen
in right of Canada Ottawa, Canada: Minster of Indian Affairs and
Northern Development, 1993. A more recent settlement of Native land
claims which can be very productively compared to the Alaska Native
Claims Settlement Act of 1971. Government documents and reports are
important sources of information which require careful appraisal especially
about the perspectives and interests of the authors and the supporting
Tenenbaum, Joan M.. Denaina Sukdua Traditional
Stories of the Tanaina Athabascans Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native
Language Center, 1984. Among a number of texts produced or published
by the center in their effort to create a more accurate written form
of many Alaska Native languages. The texts are normally produced in
* Taylor, Graham. The New Deal and American Indian
Tribalism Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1980.
Historical study of the Indian Reorganization Act policy during the
The Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear 11-27,
1897-9, 13, 98. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899.
Along with the Corwin this revenue cutter was a principal representation
of the Federal government to Alaska Natives for much of the early
part of the century.
Thompson, Kathleen. Portrait of America: Alaska
Milwaukee, Wisconsin: A Turner Book, Raintree Publication, 1988. For
children to accompany the Turner Broadcasting series about the fifty
states. This text is about Alaska. There are a number of factual errors
in the history.
* Thornton, Harrison Robertson. Among the Eskimos
of Wales, Alaska 1890-93 Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press,
1931. Reprint of the journal of a missionary who eventually became
a martyr for his arrogance if not for his faith. He worked and died
in Wales, Alaska.
Tikhmenev, P.A. A History of the Russian-American
Company Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1978.
Vecsey, Christopher and William A. Starna, editors.
Iroquois Land Claims Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University
Press, 1988. Historic, legal, and anthropological aspects of Iroquois
land claims. An interesting counterpoint to Alaska Natives legal and
historical relations with the United States.
Vezinet, Monique editor. Native Claims
Volume 3 Number 1 of Inuit Studies Quebec, Canada: Universite
Laval, ?. Includes a well written summary of the Alaska Native claims
by Ernest S. Burch Jr.
Walker, James R.. Lakota Society Lincoln, Nebraska:
University of Nebraska, 1992. Anthropological work by the author who
was the physician on the Pine Ridge Reservation from 1896 to 1914.
Walker, Scott. The Graywolf Annual Multicultural
Literacy St. Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press, 1986. A response
to conservative arguments about what should be taught and why.
Wallace, Anthony F.C.. The Death and Rebirth of
the Seneca New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1969.
Warbelow, Mary Lou. Empire on Ice Anchorage,
Alaska: Great Northwest Publishing Company, 1990. An honest account
of the views, purposes and events from a teacher perspective in Northwest
Alaska during the later period of the Bureau of Indian Affairs school
* Washburn, Wilcomb E.. History of Indian-White
Relations Volume 4 of the Handbook of North American Indians
Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1988. An important text for
understanding current scholarship about Indian-White relations.
Watkins, Mel. Dene Nation: The Colony Within
Toronto, Canada: Toronto University Press, 1977. A clear argument
for why Canada and it's provinces should reexamine governmental policies
concerning the First Nations.
Weatherford, Jack. Indian Givers New York,
New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. The contributions of Native American
societies to the rest of the world.
Weeden, Robert B. Alaska: Promises to Keep
New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1978. A nonnative perspective
on state land and resource use that can be profitably compared to
Alaska Native perspectives on the same topics.
Wells, Ensign Rodger U.S.M. & Interpreter John
W. Kelly. English-Eskimo, Eskimo-English Vocabulary Rutland,
Vermont: Charles Tuttle Co., 1982. Reprint of a linguistic text published
in 1890. It is of interest not only for linguistic reasons but also
for its early and often derogatory remarks about Inuit societies.
The author suggested the text might be used by teachers in Alaska.
* Wells, James. Ipani Eskimo Anchorage, Alaska:
Alaska Methodist University Press, 1974. A simply written but important
text about the traditional cycle of living in Northwest Alaska prior
to the contact period.
Weyers, Edward Moffat. The Eskimos: Their Environment
and Folkways ? Archon Books, 1969. Reprint of a text published
in 1932. An interesting survey of the literature.
* White, Richard The Roots of Dependency Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1983. An analysis of the interactions
between Europeans and Native Americans that transformed the Choctaws,
Pawnees, and Navajo into economic dependency on the Europeans. This
should be required reading for anyone interested the current social
and economic conditions of Native American communities.
* Wilder, Edna. Once Upon An Eskimo Time Anchorage,
Alaska: Alaska Northwest Books, 1987. Stories of the lives of the
authors relatives from the contact period.
Wilkinson, Charles. American Indians, Time and
the Law New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1987.
Williams, C. Herb and Walt Neubrech. Indian Treaties
American Nightmare Seattle, Washington: Outdoor Empire Publishers,
Inc., 1976. A sample of the antitreaty sport hunting and fishing literature.
Wintersteen, Teddy. A Brief History of the Bethel,
Alaska Moravian Church Anchorage, Alaska: American Speedy Printing,
1988. The first Protestant mission effort in southwest Alaska. This
is a commemorative church history.
* Yarber, Yvonne and Curt Madison. Altona Brown
a biography Fairbanks, Alaska: Spirit Mountain Press, 1983. A
sample of a series of biographies and local histories done by the
staff and students of the Yukon-Koyukuk School District of interior