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Alaska Native/Native American Bibliography
Compiled by Paul Ongtooguk

?-Incomplete information of publisher, date, etc.
*- recommended

This bibliography is for those who are interested in the present day circumstances of Alaska Native societies as a part of the social, historical, and political fabric of the United States. I hope the text is especially useful for teachers and university faculty who are not specialists about Alaska Natives in particular or Native Americans in general yet find their teaching should or does touch on some aspect of Alaska Native life and circumstance.

In teaching in both public schools and at the university I encounter teachers and faculty who wish for an introduction to texts that will help them to avoid stereotypes and represent more accurately Native American societies.

When I began teaching and later as a teacher educator I saw well intentioned teachers ignore or misrepresent Alaska Native societies. Many do so because they are inadequately educated. The cycle of ignorance is then repeated. To be silent about Alaska Native cultures and communities is also a powerful and unfortunate lesson. Alaska Natives have not vanished and are not about to. However, we are too often invisible in what is taught to our students.

It is critical for all to re-examine the assumption that equates being a precontact, museum quality Native American with "true" Native American status. Often the media plays upon and perpetuates this view when it questions the status or legitimate claims of Native Americans by contrasting tribal issues and rights with the modern tools and dress of the Native Americans involved. It seems too many otherwise well educated people seem to carry on a belief that the only "true" Native Americans are the ones who look as though they fell out of an Edward Curtis photograph or from Dances With Wolves. These same individuals do not believe the Japanese are less Japanese because they build computers, cars, C.D. players, etc.. To be Japanese a person does not have to look as though they are caste members of Shogun. One can be both modern and Japanese. One can be American without dressing and speaking like a host at Colonial Williamsburg.

Native Americans and Native American societies can and must deal with the changes the modern is bringing and we claim that we and our children will be different and yet will continue to be a part of our respective nations. The consequences of believing a modern education somehow undermines a persons status as a Native American has been terrible for our children and our communities.

As I am Inupiat or Northern "Eskimo" and have worked in curriculum development for a Northwest Alaska school district serving predominantly Inupiat students the bibliography is weighted by my life and work. Nevertheless I hope the references will at least point the way for those with both similar and wider interests.

The bibliography includes United States relations with Native Americans in general as Alaska Natives are included in Federal Indian law and policy. I have also included texts about other Native American societies which might indicate what we share and how we are distinctive. Some of the texts I recommend with the asterisk symbol *. I have also tried to briefly describe some texts which may be especially helpful, may not be well known or are not commonly available.

I offer the reader my own categories of the literature represented. It is important to read the assumptions and attitudes of the authors as well as their ideas and information. They may divided into six categories:

1. The works of early European and European-American explorers. It should be clear these individuals are not discovering the land and waters as Native people are already present. The Europeans and European- Americans are discovering the ignorance of their ancestors about these places.

2. Russians, Yankee Whalers, missionaries, miners, adventurers, and traders. Concerning Alaska Native people these texts range from genuine interest to viewing us as curiosities to arrogant ignorance.

3. Government reports, documents, accounts by Alaska teachers. By the early 1880's the government documents, including census and annual reports of teachers become significant sources of information. They tell some indirect information about Alaska Native people. More importantly these texts cast light on the perspectives, policies and practices of the European-Americans in Alaska. The teacher accounts are generally not about their teaching or what they are trying to teach. (Tisha is an exception) The teacher texts are normally about adventure and the Alaska Native communities in which they work and live.

4. Anthropological works. These works often contain valuable information about traditional life and practices. At the same time it is important to recognize these texts are written with a professional agenda. The texts often tell more about the period and school of anthropology of the author than about traditional practices and beliefs. At times the arrogance of some anthropologists is matched only by some Alaskan missionaries.

5. Federal Indian law and policy. Most European -Americans and, tragically, many Alaska Natives are not acquainted with the history of Federal Indian law and policy. Alaska Natives are Native Americans under U.S. law. We are dual citizens. We are citizens of our tribes and, since 1924, citizens of the United States. This status predates and is incorporated into the U.S. Constitution. Federal Indian law has important implications for the lives of Alaska Natives and other Native Americans today.

6. Alaska Native and Native American authors. This last category includes Senungetuk, Bigjim, Erdrich, Deloria, Oquilluk, Dorris, Barsh, Green, Wells, etc. These texts are important as they provide inside perspectives and indicate the variety of viewpoints represented within the Native community. It was not until college that I was even made aware of Native American authors. For Alaska Native students to graduate from public schools ignorant of our histories, our organizations and our own authors is to miseducate the next generation. It can and should be different. This bibliography is intended to support making such a difference.

I should also note that many of the texts included may be currently out of print. I suggest Powell Books of Portland, Oregon, as well as other used book stores, to locate these texts. Other texts may be located by contacting the publisher.

I hope later editions of this bibliography will benefit further from the suggestions of veteran scholars and from the Native community.


* Alaska Federation of Natives, The AFN Report on the Status of Alaska Natives: A Call For Action. Anchorage, Alaska, 1989. An important report on the social issues facing Alaska Native communities.

Allen, Arthur James. A Whaler and Trader in the Arctic Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1978. Memoirs of a long time resident of the Arctic Slope region. Mentions the names of whalers whose names continue to be a part of the region, Bodfish, Hopson, Brower, Leavitt, Allen, Hadley, etc.. He also describes in passing the segregation of the whaling crews by whites, colored, and Native - an unfortunate legacy.

* Paula Gunn Allen editor. Spider Woman’s Granddaughters New York, New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1989. "Traditional tales and contemporary writing by Native American women." American Horse by Louise Erdrich is a powerful example of the author’s work. It should serve as a welcome introduction for anyone who has missed The Crown of Columbus ( Co-authored with Michael Dorris. ), Beet Queen, Tracks, Jacklight, etc..

Armond, Dale de. The Seal Oil Lamp San Francisco, California: Sierra Club Books, 1988. A children’s story based on an Alaska Native legend.

Armstrong, Terence, George Rogers and Graham Rowley. The Circumpolar North London, Great Britain: Methuen & Co Ltd., 1978. A dated survey of the politics and economics of the north.

* Arnold, Robert. Alaska Native Land Claims Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Native Foundation, 1978. Though dated, a key text about the politics of the Native land claims in Alaska. Out of print.

Barsh, Russel, James Henderson. The Road Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. An alternative interpretation and argument of Indian policy written by an Indian attorney.

Bataille, Gretchen M. and Kathleen Mullen Sands. American Indian Women Telling Their Lives Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. A study that argues, what should be obvious, Native American women and their roles are crucial to Native American societies. A significant bibliography is also included.

* Berger, Thomas R. A Long and Terrible Shadow: White Values, Native Rights in the Americas 1492-1992 Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press 1991. A thoughtful and passionate critique of the history of white Europeans and Native Americans. A powerful essay.

Berger, Thomas. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: The Report of the MacKenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry Toronto, Canada, 1977. A study of the cultural, economic, and environmental assessment of the region including Native claims. A historic study.

* Berger, Thomas R. Village Journey New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 1985. A key text about the effects of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act on Alaska Native villages. It is extensive in quoting Alaska Native perspectives gathered from throughout Alaska.

* Berkhofer, Robert, Jr. The White Man's Indian New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1978. A classic on the perceptions and images that have defined the views of white people about Native Americans as seen in literature.

* Bigjim, Fred. Sinrock Portland, Oregon: Press-22, 1983. Poetry by an Inuit from Northwest Alaska.

* Bigjim, Frederick & James Ito-Adler. Letters to Howard Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1974. Early concerns about the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act written as letters to the editor from fictional characters.

Boas, Franz. The Central Eskimo Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1964. Reprint of the work of one of the leading early anthropologists.

* Bodfish, Waldo. Kusiq. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1991. A personal account of life in the North Slope of Alaska by an Inuit elder.

Boeri, David. People of the Ice Whale New York, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. A journalist who was a guest in an Alaskan Saint Lawerence Island community and then wrote a text without inviting community comment on the text before publishing.

* Bowden, Henry Warner. American Indians and Christian Missions Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1981. An analysis of the cultural encounters between Christian missionaries and Native American communities and religions. Well written.

Briggs, Jean. Never In Anger Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1970. An anthropologist describes the child rearing practices of an Inuit family.

Brodeur, Paul. Restitution: Land Claims of Mashpee, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscot Indians of New England Boston, Massachusetts: Northeastern University Press, 1985. The title is self explanatory.

Brody, Hugh. Maps and Dreams New York, New York: Pantheon Press, 1981. An anthropologist encounters a powerful and troubling experience among a Canadian Indian tribe.

* Brody, Hugh. Living Arctic Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1987. A white Canadian account of the pressures faced by the Natives of Arctic Canada.

* Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee New York, New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1970. Modern classic that details how the west was taken.

* Brown, Emily Ivanoff (Ticasuk). The Longest Story Ever Told Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Pacific University, 1981. An Inuit who has written a version of a traditional tale in English.

Brown, Joseph Epes, editor. The Sacred Pipe Black Elk's Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1971.

Brower, Charles D.. Fifty Years Below Zero Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1994 (reprint). Originally published in 1942. An adventurer's account of his own life and what he witnessed in the North Slope region of Alaska.

Carlson, Gerald F. Two on the Rocks New York, New York: Van Rees Press, 1966. Represents a typical lower states account of adventuring as a teacher in Alaska.

Casa, Bartolome’ de las. The Devastation of the Indies Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. A reprinted English translation of an important text in Native American-European history. Written in 1552, this Spanish priest argues in defense of the humanity of the Indians and condemns the genocidal acts of the Spanish "Christians". The writing of an angry eyewitness.

* Case, David S. Alaska Natives & Alaska Laws Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1984. A major work on the legal status of Alaska Natives.

* Chance, Norman A.. The Inupiat and Arctic Alaska: An Ethnography of Development Fort Worth, Texas: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston 1990. An important text about the transformation of life in the North Slope area of Alaska.

Chapman, Abraham editor. Literature of the American Indians: Views and Interpretations New York, New York: New American Library, 1975.

* Chasan, Daniel Jack. Klondike ‘70: The Alaskan Oil Boom New York, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1971. An account of the social and political circumstances in Alaska just prior to the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.

Chasan, Daniel Jack. Up For Grabs Seattle, Washington: Madrona Pub., Inc., 1977. A series of essays including topics about Indian treaty rights.

Cheney, Theodore A. Rees. Living in Polar Regions New York, New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. A general introduction to Arctic people and living conditions.

Cline, Michael S.. Tannik School The Impact of Education on the Eskimos of Anaktuvuk Pass Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1975. The author might have reconsidered the title. Inuit were educated long before contact with Europeans. I think he meant the impact of schools which is a very different thing.

* Clinton, Robert, Nell Newton, and Monroe Price. American Indian Law Charlottesville, Virginia: Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., 1990. By far the best introduction about the legal status of Native Americans in the United States.

* Cohen, Fay G. Treaties on Trial Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1986. A defense of the Indian treaty rights concerning salmon in Washington state.

Collier, John Jr. Alaskan Eskimo Education, A Film Analysis of Cultural Confrontation in the Schools New York, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1973. An anthropological study.

Condon, Richard G. The Northern Copper Inuit: A History Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. The work of elder interviews underlying the text and the extensive use of quotations of elders and other Inuit is a genuine strength. I found it extremely frustrating to read about persons, elders, hunters, traders, missionaries, etc. and have them disappear without mention of what became of them. The reader should value what is to be gained from reading this text while realizing it is a history written by an anthropologist.

Coon, Carleston S., The Hunting Peoples New York, New York: Nick Lyons Books, 1971. An informed comparative survey of traditional hunting societies.

Cornwall, Peter G. and Gerald McBeath editor. Alaska's Rural Development Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press Inc., 1982. A series of academic papers.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 1983.

* Damas, David editor. Arctic Volume 5 of the Handbook of North American Indians Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1984. Required text for any serious student of the scholarship about Arctic people.

Darnell, Frank and Anton Hom. Taken to Extremes Education in the Far North Cambridge, Massachsetts, 1996. ISBN 82-00-22588-7 A current text on a neglected topic. The authors take a historical approach to the establishment of schools in the Far North. It does not include Northern Russia or Siberia. The section on Alaska education should be of value to any teacher in Northern Alaskan education.

* Dauenhauer, Nora Marks and Richard. Haa Shuka’ Our Ancestors Tlingit Oral Narratives Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1987. Remarkable scholarship and effort are evident in preserving a written version of these narratives from southeast Alaska.

Debo, Angie. The Rise and Fall of the Choctaw Republic Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. Originally published in 1934. A careful and ground breaking work.

* DeJong, David. Promises of the Past: A History of American Indian Education Golden, Colorado: North American Press, 1983. The only readable and informative survey of the topic of which I am aware.

Deloria Jr, Vine and Clifford Lytle. American Indian, American Justice Austin, Texas: Texas University Press, 1983. This is a surprisingly sympathetic portrayal of Federal Indian Law by a leading author in the field.

* Deloria, Vine Custer Died For Your Sins Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1988. Classic and biting critique of how Indians are seen and dealt with by white America. Reprint of the text written in the 1960’s.

Deloria Jr., Vine. Of Utmost Good Faith New York, New York: Bantam Books, 1971. Documents and arguments against the Federal government taking of Indian lands and refusal to honor treaties.

Dippie, Brian W. The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Policy Middleton, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press, 1982.

Dmytryshyn, Basil, E.A.P. Crownhart-Vaughn. The End of the Russian America: Captain P.N. Golovin's Last Report, 1862 Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society, 1979. Publication of an original document.

Dockstader, Frederick and Alice Dockstader. The American Indian in Graduate Studies New York: Museum of the American Indian Heye Foundation, 1973-74. A bibliography of graduate thesis and dissertations.

* Dorris, Michael. The Broken Cord ,Grand Rapids, Michigan: Harper & Row, 1989. A personal account trying to understand the effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on Indian children, families, and communities. The author, a Modoc, also wrote A Yellow Raft on Blue Water, a fiction of the lives of Native American women from three generations. He co-authored a bestseller with Louise Erdrich, The Crown of Columbus.

Driscoll, Joseph. War Discovers Alaska Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J.P. Lippincott, 1943. A journalist visits Alaska during the war and describes, among other things, racism in the territory.

Drucker, Philip. Cultures of the North Pacific Coast New York, New York: Chandler Publishing Co., 1965. An anthropological text.

Dumond, Donald E.. The Eskimos and Aleuts London, Great Britain: Thames and Hudson, Limited, 1977. An anthropological and archaeological interpretation of Inuit and Aleut history.

Eastman, Charles A.. Indian Boyhood New York, New York: Dover Publications, 1971. A reprint of a work originally published in 1902. Written from the perspective of an individual who has accepted a social darwinistic and yet romantic image of the Lakota as noble savages.

Fedorova, Svetlana. Ethnic Processes in Russian America Anchorage, Alaska: Anchorage Historical Fine Arts Museum, 1975. A description of the social structure of Russian-America. Worthwhile reading.

Fejes, Claire. The People of the Noatak New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970. An artist recounts her perspectives as a visitor to the region.

Felman, Susan. The Story Telling Stone New York, New York: Dell Publishing, 1965. An anthology of traditional Native American myths and tales.

* Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Nelson Island Eskimos Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1983. An anthropological study.

* Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Real People and the Children of Thunder Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. A thoughtful interpretation of early Moravian mission encounters in southwest Alaska among the Yup’ik.

Fienup-Riordan, Ann. The Yup’ik Eskimos Kingston, Canada: Limestone Press, 1988. A selection of readings from the Kilbuck collection. The Kilbucks were early missionaries and teachers in southwest Alaska. The perspectives of missionaries about the "civilizing process", education, and accounts of the people are important.

Finger, John R.. Cherokee Americans; The Eastern Band in the Twentieth Century Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991. An account of the modern history of the Cherokee who avoided the removal of the 1830s to Oklahoma. Written with clarity and sympathy.

Fitzhugh, William and Aaron Crowell Crossroads of Continents; Cultures of Siberia and Alaska Kingsport, Tennessee: Arcata Graphics 1988 . Accompanied an exhibit on the topic.

* Fitzhugh, William W. and Susan A. Kaplan. Inua Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press 1982. An ethnographic interpretation of traditional beliefs written to accompany an exhibit of western Alaska artifacts collected at the turn of the century by Edward Nelson.

* Fortier, Ed. One Survived Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1979. A true story of surviving on the sea ice by a King Island Inuit.

* Fortuine, Robert. Chills and Fevers Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1992. A history of western diseases and medicine among Alaska Natives. Required reading.

*Frideres, James S.. Native Peoples in Canada Contemporary Conflicts Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., 1988. Inuit, Athabascans, Tsimshians, Mohawk and other Native people have been divided by the Canadian-United States border. The treatment, misunderstandings, politics, socioeconomic issues, and policies transcend the boundaries.

* Gallagher, H.G.. Etok: A Story of Eskimo Power New York, New York: G.P. Putman and Sons, 1974. Biography of Charles Edwardsen Jr., a political leader from the Arctic Slope of Alaska.

Giffen, Naomi. The Roles of Men and Women in Eskimo Culture Chicago, Illinois: Chicago University Press, 1930. An early anthropological study.

Giddings, J. Louis Ancient Men of the Arctic New York, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. An archaeological pioneer in Northwest Alaska.

* Gilbert, Bill. God Gave Us This Country New York, New York: Doubleday, 1989. Life and efforts of early Indian leaders resisting White taking of their land .

Graburn, Nelson H. H.. Eskimos Without Igloos Boston, Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1969. Anthropological study of Canadian Inuit.

* Gray, Minnie, Tupou L. Pulu, Angeline Newlin, Ruth Ramoth-Sampson. Taimaknaqtat Old Beliefs Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1981. Old beliefs translated from Northwest Alaska Native elder conferences. Out of print.

* Green, Paul. I am Eskimo Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishing Co., 1959. An elder writing about tradition and change in Northwest Alaska.

Gruening, Ernest. The State of Alaska New York, New York: Random House, 1968. A former senator writes his account of Alaska history.

Hadwen, Seymore and Lawerence J. Palmer. Reindeer In Alaska Seattle, Washington: The Shorey Bookstore, 1967. One of a number facsimile reproductions that the Shorey Bookstore has done of texts about Alaska. This is a reprint of a 1922 Department of Agriculture bulletin.

Hagan, William T. American Indians Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1961. A survey of Indian white relations. As a third edition, it is a standard text. The new edition includes a brief annotated bibliography.

Haig - Brown, Celia. Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School Vancover, British Columbia, Canada: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1993. A study of a Canadian Indian boarding school operated by a Catholic order with Canadian federal funding. I include and recommend this text as Alaska Native boarding schools have yet to receive this kind of important scholarly attention.

Hall, Edwin T.. The Eskimo Storyteller Folktales From Noatak, Alaska Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, 1975. Powerful stories that seem muffled by the translations which read with an unfortunate woodeness.

* Hall, Sam. The Forth World New York, New York: Vintage Press, 1987. A journalist account of Inuit and Sammi conflicts with European dominated nations.

Hamilton, J. Taylor and Kenneth G. Hamilton. History of the Moravian Church Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Interprovincial Board of Christian Education Moravian Church of America, 1967. Missionary contact and work among Native Americans has been intense and of significant impact. The Moravians have a long history of such work. Their work in southwest Alaska among the Yupik is a crucial part of the history of the region. Although this text presents that history in a very favorable light it provides much information with which to begin a study of the topic.

Henning, Robert et al. The Kotzebue Basin Edmonds, Washington: Alaska Geographic, 1981. Includes articles on the history, contact period and current issues in the region.

Herbert, Wally. Eskimo New York, New York: Collins Publishers, 1976 Anthropological study with an emphasis on Greenlandic Inuit.

Hodgson, Stuart. Stories from Pangnirtung Edmonton, Alberta: Hurtig Publishers, 1976.

Honingmann, John J. and Irma. Eskimo Townsmen Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology, 1965. Anthropological study of Frobisher Inuit in the modern period.

Hornung, Rick. One Nation Under The Gun Inside The Mohawk Civil War Toronto, Canada: Stoddart Publishing Co., 1991. A journalist account of the dynamics, both internal and external, of division among the Mohawk.

* Hoxie, Fredrick E. A Final Promise: A Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920 Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Hughes, Charles C., Eskimo Boyhood Louisville, Kentucky: The University of Kentucky Press, 1974. I have no use for the psychobabble at the end but the life story of the Siberian Yupik boy is clearly described.

Hunt, William R. Arctic Passage New York, New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1975. The perspective of some euro-American interests in exploiting the Arctic.

Jenness, Diamond. Eskimo Administration: I. Alaska Technical Paper No. 10 Arctic Institute of North America: Washington DC, USA, 1962. The title is NOT about Native administrators. A call more effective means for assimiliating Eskimo. The language is difficult to read..."stone age, primitive, etc." and yet important in how it reflects the thinking of important policy makers at the time. He includes a perceptive quote of Laughlin, 1950 "...Without exception the teachers appear to arrive without advance instruction concerning the people, their economy, language, or history. This makes the duty of the teacher very difficult..." p. 30. Educational administrators today are no better on this count.

* Jennings, Francis. The Invasion of America New York, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1975. Revisionist history of early Native American- European contact.

* Jones, Dorothy M. Aleuts in Transition Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1976. An anthropological study of two Aleut communities in transition.

Jones, Dorothy. The Urban Native Encounters The Social Service System Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska, 1974. A small study about an important topic.

Jones, Suzi editor. Eskimo Dolls Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska State Council of the Arts, 1982. Written to accompany an exhibit on Native doll making.

Jordan, Winthrop. The White Man's Burden London, Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Kamenskii, Fr. Anatolii. Tlingit Indians of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1985. Translation of the work of an early Orthodox missionary. An important text.

* Kaplan, Lawrence J.. Inupiaq and the Schools Juneau, Alaska: Alaska Department of Education, 1989 Intended to inform teachers about Native languages and issues. Brief and clear discussion on the history, current status and educational issues about this and other Native languages.

Keithahn, Edward Alaskan Igloo Tales Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Publishers, 1974. A sanitized English version of Inuit legends.

Keithahn, Edward. Eskimo Adventure Seattle, Washington: Superior Publishers Company, 1963. One of the better written adventure stories of teaching in Alaska.

Kelly, Lawrence. The Assault on Assimilation Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1983. An important study of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the 1920’s. The text focuses on John Collier as the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.

* Kizzia, Tom. The Wake of the Unseen Object New York, New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1991. Journalist essays of visits to rural Alaska by a resident of the city of Anchorage.

Kleinfeld, Judith. A Long Way From Home Fairbanks, Alaska: Center for Northern Educational Research, 1973. A study of the discontinued state regional boarding programs for Alaska Native high school students.

Kleinfeld, Judith S., G. Williamson McDiarmid and David Hagstrom. Alaska’s Small Rural High Schools Anchorage, Alaska: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1985. A study of the small rural high schools that were created in the 1970’s and early 1980’s in Alaska.

Kleinfeld, Judith S.. Eskimo School on the Andreafsky New York, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988. A description about St. Mary’s High School, a Catholic boarding school, since closed, that served Native students from rural Alaska.

Krause, Aurel. The Tlingit Indians Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 1956. Translation of an expeditionary report of a German explorer who visited Alaska and wrote in the 1880’s.

* Krauss, Michael. Alaska Native Languages Past, Present, and Future Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, 1980. Historical and modern circumstances of Alaska Native languages.

Krupat, Arnold. The Voice in the Margin Native American Literature and the Canon Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1989. A part of the cultural literacy debate.

* Kwachka, Patricia. Theata ‘87 volume 12 Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska, 1987. Articles and essays written by Alaska Native students at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks on a variety of topics concerning Alaska Native life and societies.

* Lamb, May Wynne Life In Alaska Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1988. One of the better stories of pioneer teaching in Alaska.

* Langdon, Steve J.. The Native People of Alaska Anchorage, Alaska: Greatland Graphics, 1987. A brief and relatively inexpensive introduction to the anthropological understanding of Alaska Native people.

* Lauritzen, Philip. Oil and Amulets. ? Breakwater Books, 1979. A white journalist describes some of the issues facing Greenlandic Inuit.

Lazarus, Edward. Black Hills, White Justice New York, New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991. A presentation of the legal and historical rights of the Lakota to the Black Hills.

Lazell, J. Arthur. Alaskan Apostle: Sheldon Jackson New York: Harper & Row, 1960. A commemorative biography of a key Protestant missionary and the first Commissioner of Education for the territory of Alaska.

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest The Unbroken Past of the West New York, New York : W.W. Norton and Company 1987. An original economic analysis of the history of the American West including the history of Native American relations by whites.

Llorente, Segundo. Memoirs of a Yukon Priest Washington D.C.: Georgetown, University Press, 1990. A part of the second wave of Catholic priests in Alaska. He served in Alaska from 1935-1975. He was also a member of the Alaska House of Representatives.

Lopez, Barry. Arctic Dreams New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1986. A powerfully written personal perspective of how one euroamerican views the Arctic.

Lowenstein, Tom. Eskimo Poems from Canada and Greenland Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh, 1973. Often poetry does not translate well. This translation sustains poetic power.

Lund, Annabel. Heartbeat: World Eskimo Indian Olympics Juneau, Alaska: Fairweather Press, 1986. Well illustrated and written text about traditional Alaska Native games and why they are vital aspects of our lives today.

* Macbeth, Angus. Personal Justice Denied Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982. Includes the Aleut removal and internment in camps during World War II.

Mander, Jerry. In The Absence Of The Sacred San Francisco, California: Sierra Books, 1991. The author critiques several assumptions of modern society and then examines the consequences in light of Native American societies.

Mangusso, Mary, and Stephen Haycox. Interpreting Alaska’s History: An Anthology. Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1989. Includes some articles that provide a perspective on some topics that affect Alaska Natives. Includes descriptions of Alaska Natives to obtain citizenship, end segregation and the lower pay scale of Alaska Native commercial fishermen.

* Marston, Muktuk. Men of the Tundra. New York, New York: October House, Inc., 1972. The story of the establishment of the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II. This organization had, and through the successor units, continues to have important social and cultural influences in many Alaska Native communities.

Martin, Calvin editor. The American Indian and the Problem of History London: Oxford University Press, 1987. Several essays about historical interpretation and American Indians by historians, Indians, and Indian historians.

Matthiessen, Peter. In the Spirit of Crazy Horse New York, New York: Viking Press, 1991. An interpretation of the conflict between the United States government, particularly the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the American Indian Movement.

* Matthiessen, Peter. Indian Country New York, New York: Penguin, 1992. A personal account by the author of his effort to understand the present conflicts between Indians and the Federal Government.

* McBeath, Gerald A. & Thomas A. Morehouse. The Dynamics of Alaska Native Self-Government Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1980. Study that examines Alaska Native politics in the modern period with an emphasis on the Arctic Slope region.

McDiarmid, G. Williamson, Judith Kleinfeld and William Parrett. The Inventive Mind Portraits of Rural Alaska Teachers Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1988. Includes a description of an Alaska Native teacher. It is disappointing to read little of the direct comments and ideas of the teachers themselves.

McGregor, James. The Wounded Knee Massacre Rapid City, South Dakota: Fenwyn Press, 1940. Indian oral traditions about the events described.

* McLuhan, T.C., Touch the Earth New York, New York: Promontory Press, 1971. Speeches by Native Americans with brief introductions.

*McNickle, D’arcy. Native American Tribalism Oxford, Great Britain: Oxford University Press, 1993. Reprint. The best introductory text I have encountered. An Indian author and historian who wrote clearly with a perceptive sense of how to engage both first time readers and scholars with key issues in Native American history.

McPhee, John. Coming into the Country New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976. About Alaska with some discussion of Alaska Native issues.

Merkur, Daniel. Powers Which We Do Not Know Moscow , Idaho: University of Idaho Press, 1991. A survey of research about traditional Inuit religious beliefs.

Metayer, Maurice ed. and trans.. I, Nuligak New York, New York: Pocket Books, 1972. Canadian Inuit describing his life during the transitional period of modern contact.

Metraux, Alfred, translated by George Ordish. The History of the Incas New York: Schocken Books, 1970. Challenges many stereotypes about Native Americans .

Meyer, Carolyn. Eskimos New York, New York: Athenaeum, 1977. Fictional representation of Yupik "Eskimo" life in the 1960’s.

Michener, James A. Alaska New York, New York: Random House, 1988. Popular history and fiction blended.

* Miner, H. Craig. The Corporation and the Indian Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1976. An important text as all but one of the Native communities in Alaska are now represented by village and/or regional corporations under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.

* Mitchell, John G. The Hunt New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1981. Hunting and views of hunting discussed, including modern subsistence hunting being done by Alaska Natives.

Morgan, Lael chief editor. Alaska’s Native Peoples Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Geographic Press, 1979. A coffee table introduction to the history and current circumstances of Alaska Native people. Many color photographs.

* Morgan, Lael. Art and Eskimo Power The life and times of Alaskan Howard Rock Fairbanks, Alaska: Epicenter Press, 1988. Howard Rock was the founding editor of the only statewide Alaska Native newspaper. He also played a vital part in pressing for Alaska Native claims to traditional land.

Morehouse, Thomas A.. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, 1991, and Tribal Government Anchorage, Alaska: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1988. Useful introduction to the issues and some of the positions taken. Now a historical document.

Mowat, Farley. The Desperate People New York, New York: Bantam Books, 1981. One of a number of texts written by a popular Canadian author.

Murdoch, John. Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1988. Reprint of an early and important scientific exploration of the area.

*Nabokov, Peter. Native American Testimony 1492-1992 New York, New York: Penguin Books, 1992. A valuable source of Native American perspectives about Indian-white relations.

* Napoleon, Harold. Yuuyaraq: The Way of the Human Being Fairbanks, Alaska: Publications Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, 1991. Painful analysis by a former Alaska Native leader as to why social structures in rural Alaska are stressed. Thought provoking.

Naske, Claus M. An Interpretative History of Alaskan Statehood Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Pub. Co., 1973. Alaska history told as a commemorative of the euroamerican pioneers.

Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks New York, New York: Pocket Books, 1972. Important text and at the center of questions about who should copyright tribal history and culture.

* Nelson, Edward William. The Eskimo About Bering Strait Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1983. Paper back with illustrations and photographs. A wealth of material and descriptions of Native cultures during the early contact period.

Nelson, Richard K. Make Prayers to the Raven Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1983. Descriptive essay about Athabascan world views and understandings. A videotape series accompanies the text.

Nelson, Richard, Kathleen Mautner, Ray G. Bane. Tracks in the Wilderness Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 1982. A national park funded study that includes important information based on interviews of elders in the region.

* Nelson, Richard. K. Shadow of the Hunter Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1980. A fictional but carefully written text of Inupiat life in Northwest Alaska in the early 1960’s.

Niatum, Duane. Harper’s Anthology of 20th Century Native American Poetry San Francisco, California: HarperCollins Publishers, 1988. Some excellent poetry.

Oleksa, Michael editor. Alaska Missionary Spirituality New York, New York: Paulist Press, 1987. The introduction is a clear, brief summary of the history of the Orthodox Church in Alaska.

Olsson, Karl A.. By One Spirit Chicago, Illinois Covenant Press, 1984. A history of the Covenant Church of America including the mission work in Alaska. A key text in understanding the history of Northwest Alaska.

* Oman, Lela Kiana. Eskimo Legends Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1975. Printed versions of tales told to the author.

* O'Neil, Dan. The Firecracker Boys New York, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. A history of the how the federal government considered exploding a series of nuclear bombs south of Pt. Hope, Alaska and how the project was stopped. The people and community of Pt. Hope can be proud of that generation of leadership and the efforts of their community.

Ongtooguk, Paul editor. ANCSA: Selected Student Readings Kotzebue, Alaska: Northwest Arctic Borough School District, 1987 Documents about the Alaska Native settlement of land claims.

* Oquilluk, William A. People of Kauwerak Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1973. Originally the oral history of a muit or "group" of Alaskan Inupiat which he then wrote with the assistance of a university researcher.

* Oswalt, Wendall H.. Bashful No Longer Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. An anthropological and historical survey of Southwest Alaska Natives from 1778 to 1988. Includes historic responses of Yupik and Chupik peoples to modern issues.

Oswalt, Wendall H.. Eskimos and Explorers Novato, California: Chandler and Sharp Publishers, 1979. An author with a long involvement in Alaska anthropology.

Oswalt, Wendall H.. Napaskiak An Alaska Eskimo Community Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona, 1963. Anthropological study of a Southwest Alaska Native community.

Pagden, Anthony. The Fall of Natural Man. London, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1982. The place of Native Americans in the imagination of euroamericans.

Pearce, Roy Harvey. Savagism & Civilization Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1988. An important description of cultural views of euroamericans about the First Peoples of North America.

* Pevar, Stephen L.. The Rights of Indians and Tribes Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1992. Concise, inexpensive paperback introduction to key aspects of Federal Indian Law.

Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Policy Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1962. More sympathetic to the Federal policy makers than I believe justified. Important to note why these policies makers thought as they did without accepting those viewpoints.

* Prucha, Francis Paul Americanizing the American Indian Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1973. Primary documents of the influential "Friends of the Indians" from 1880-1900. In the words of the founder of the Carlisle Industrial School for Indians their efforts were to "Kill the Indian in him and save the man". The debate, concern and efforts of these leaders of U.S. Indian policy was how best to assimilate Indians and destroy the tribes. The Dawes Act is well framed by these selections.

* Prucha, Francis Paul. Documents in United State's Indian Policy Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1975. The best ready source of primary government documents about Federal Indian policy.

Prucha, Francis Paul. Great Father Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

*Prucha, Francis Paul. The Indians in American Society Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1985. A summary interpretation of Federal Indian policy in which I believe the author is often an apologist for the "The Great Father". Still necessary reading for an informed view about Federal-Indian relations.

* Pulu, Tupou and Ruth Ramoth-Sampson editors. Maniilaq Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center, Anchorage, Alaska, 1981. Elders describe the life and predictions of a seer during the time just prior to contact in Northwest Alaska.

* Pulu, Tupou L., Ruth Ramoth-Sampson and Angeline Newlin. Whaling: A Way of Life Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1980. A text based on interviews of elders from Point Hope, Alaska. Only five hundred printed.

Ramoth-Sampson, Ruth. trans. Unipchaallu Uqaaqtuallu II Legends and Stories Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1976. Transcribed from elder conferences held in Kotzebue, Alaska. Out of print.

* Ramoth-Sampson, Ruth editor. Stories of the Black River People Anchorage, Alaska: National Bilingual Materials Development Center, 1980. Stories of an Upper Kobuk elder written in a bilingual text.

Rasmussen, Knud. Eskimo Poems from Canada & Greenland Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University Pittsburgh Press, 1973.

* Ray, Charles. A Program of Education for Alaska Natives rev. ed. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1959. Includes a historical overview of Alaska Native education and policy proposals that influenced a generation of Alaska Natives education.

Ray, Charles. Alaska Native Secondary School Dropouts: A Research Report Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1962. An important early report of Alaska Native dropouts in three diverse Alaska Native communities.

Ray, Dorothy Jean. The Eskimos of the Bering Strait 1650-1898 Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1975. A standard work of historical anthropology.

Ray, Dorothy Jean. Artists of the Tundra and the Sea Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1980. An anthropologist describing traditional and transitional art of Alaska Native people, especially in the Northwest of Alaska.

* Renner, Louis L. S.J. Pioneer Missionary to the Bering Strait Eskimos: Bellarmine Lafortune, S.J. Portland, Oregon: Binford and Mort Publishing, 1979. A well written account of the life of a key missionary in Northwest Alaska. A commemorative history.

Renner, Louis L. The KNOM/Father Jim Poole Story Portland, Oregon: Binford & Mort Publishing, 1985. Another commemorative of a Catholic missionary in Northwest Alaska. Father Poole is best known as the founder of the Catholic radio station in Nome, Alaska.

Roberts, Arthur O. Tomorrow is Growing Old Newberg, Oregon: Barclay Press, 1978. A very uneven account of the impact of the Friend’s Church mission in Northwest Alaska.

Rogers, Jean. Good-bye, My Island New York, New York: Greenwillow Books, 1983. Children’s story about the community of King Island, Alaska leaving the community and relocating to Nome.

Ross, W. Gillies. Whaling and Eskimos: Hudson Bay 1860-1915 Ottawa, Ontario: National Museum of Man, 1975. Hopefully this will inspire some scholar to do something similar among the whaling communities of Northwest Alaska.

* Sando, Joe. Pueblo Nations: Eight Centuries of Pueblo Indian History Santa Fe, New Mexico: Clear Light Publishers, 1992. Written by a Pueblo scholar. The text challenges conventional history and perspectives. The author also includes modern issues and biographical sketches of several Pueblo leaders.

* Sandoz, Mari. Crazy Horse Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1992. A 50th anniversary reprint of a classic text about a remarkable leader.

* Satz, Ronald N. American Indian Policy in the Jacksonian Era Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1975. An important text about an important time in Federal-Indian relations.

Schwalbe, Anna. Dayspring on the Kuskokwim Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: Department of Publications, Moravian Church of America, 1985. The Moravian church undertook the mission work in Southwest Alaska at the request of Sheldon Jackson. This is a commemorative history of the early work.

* Senungetuk, J.E. Give or Take a Century San Francisco, California: The Indian Historian Press, 1971. An autobiography full of insight. I hope more Alaska Natives will write their personal perspectives on our lives and circumstances.

* Senungetuk, Vivian and Paul Tiulana. A Place for Winter: Paul Tiulana's Story Anchorage, Alaska: The CIRI Foundation, 1987. The life story of an important King Island elder. Includes both traditional and modern life issues and history. Illustrated with remarkable photographs taken by Father Bernard Hubbard, S.J. in 1938-39.

Sherwood, Morgan B. Exploration of Alaska: 1865-1900 New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1965. Pioneer and commemorative history.

Simeone, William. A History of Alaskan Athapaskans Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Historical Commission, 1982. Brief anthropological and historical study done by a Canadian scholar.

Spencer, Robert F. The North Alaskan Eskimo New York, New York: Dover Publishers, Inc., 1976. Classic anthropological study of the 1950’s reprinted.

Spicer, Edward H.. A Short History of the Indians of the United States New York, New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1969. Brief, dated but useful introductory text with selected readings.

Sprecht, Robert. Tisha New York, New York: Bantam Books, 1976. The account of a white woman teacher in Chicken, Alaska in 1927. She learns to live with the community while challenging its' racism.

Steffansson, Vilhja’lmur . My Life With The Eskimo Collier Books New York, New York, 1971. A classic in Arctic adventure/exploration literature written about a four year expedition 1908-1912.

Steven, Hugh. Good Broth to Warm our Bones Westchester, Illinois: Crossway Books, 1982. A commemorative account of the work by an Alaska Native and a missionary in producing a written form of Inupiat or Northern Eskimo.

*Stocking, Jr., George W. Race, Culture, and Evolution Essays in the History of Anthropology Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Reprint of a now classic text originally published in 1968. Native Americans have long been victims, subjects and objects of the anthropological community. This text allows a reader to understand many assumptions and the perspectives that shaped early anthropologists and the profession.

Stuck, Hudson. The Alaskan Mission of the Episcopal Church Seattle, Washington: The Shorey Bookstore, 1968. A facsimile reproduction of a text originally published in 1920 by one of the missionaries of the church. It is important for anyone interested in Native American communities to understand not only why we have changed but in what directions. Agents of change bring perspectives about Native American communities and individuals. These views have had and continue to have an impact on our lives.

The Tungavik and Tom Siddon. Agreement Between the Inuit of the Nunavut Settlement Area and Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada Ottawa, Canada: Minster of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1993. A more recent settlement of Native land claims which can be very productively compared to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. Government documents and reports are important sources of information which require careful appraisal especially about the perspectives and interests of the authors and the supporting institutions.

Tenenbaum, Joan M.. Denaina Sukdu’a Traditional Stories of the Tanaina Athabascans Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, 1984. Among a number of texts produced or published by the center in their effort to create a more accurate written form of many Alaska Native languages. The texts are normally produced in bilingual translations.

* Taylor, Graham. The New Deal and American Indian Tribalism Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1980. Historical study of the Indian Reorganization Act policy during the 1930’s.

The Cruise of the U.S. Revenue Cutter Bear 11-27, 1897-9, 13, 98. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899. Along with the Corwin this revenue cutter was a principal representation of the Federal government to Alaska Natives for much of the early part of the century.

Thompson, Kathleen. Portrait of America: Alaska Milwaukee, Wisconsin: A Turner Book, Raintree Publication, 1988. For children to accompany the Turner Broadcasting series about the fifty states. This text is about Alaska. There are a number of factual errors in the history.

* Thornton, Harrison Robertson. Among the Eskimos of Wales, Alaska 1890-93 Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Press, 1931. Reprint of the journal of a missionary who eventually became a martyr for his arrogance if not for his faith. He worked and died in Wales, Alaska.

Tikhmenev, P.A. A History of the Russian-American Company Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1978.

Vecsey, Christopher and William A. Starna, editors. Iroquois Land Claims Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1988. Historic, legal, and anthropological aspects of Iroquois land claims. An interesting counterpoint to Alaska Natives legal and historical relations with the United States.

Ve’zinet, Monique editor. Native Claims Volume 3 Number 1 of Inuit Studies Quebec, Canada: Universite’ Laval, ?. Includes a well written summary of the Alaska Native claims by Ernest S. Burch Jr.

Walker, James R.. Lakota Society Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1992. Anthropological work by the author who was the physician on the Pine Ridge Reservation from 1896 to 1914.

Walker, Scott. The Graywolf Annual Multicultural Literacy St. Paul, Minnesota: Graywolf Press, 1986. A response to conservative arguments about what should be taught and why.

Wallace, Anthony F.C.. The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1969.

Warbelow, Mary Lou. Empire on Ice Anchorage, Alaska: Great Northwest Publishing Company, 1990. An honest account of the views, purposes and events from a teacher perspective in Northwest Alaska during the later period of the Bureau of Indian Affairs school era.

* Washburn, Wilcomb E.. History of Indian-White Relations Volume 4 of the Handbook of North American Indians Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institute, 1988. An important text for understanding current scholarship about Indian-White relations.

Watkins, Mel. Dene Nation: The Colony Within Toronto, Canada: Toronto University Press, 1977. A clear argument for why Canada and it's provinces should reexamine governmental policies concerning the First Nations.

Weatherford, Jack. Indian Givers New York, New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. The contributions of Native American societies to the rest of the world.

Weeden, Robert B. Alaska: Promises to Keep New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1978. A nonnative perspective on state land and resource use that can be profitably compared to Alaska Native perspectives on the same topics.

Wells, Ensign Rodger U.S.M. & Interpreter John W. Kelly. English-Eskimo, Eskimo-English Vocabulary Rutland, Vermont: Charles Tuttle Co., 1982. Reprint of a linguistic text published in 1890. It is of interest not only for linguistic reasons but also for its early and often derogatory remarks about Inuit societies. The author suggested the text might be used by teachers in Alaska.

* Wells, James. Ipani Eskimo Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Methodist University Press, 1974. A simply written but important text about the traditional cycle of living in Northwest Alaska prior to the contact period.

Weyers, Edward Moffat. The Eskimos: Their Environment and Folkways ? Archon Books, 1969. Reprint of a text published in 1932. An interesting survey of the literature.

* White, Richard The Roots of Dependency Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1983. An analysis of the interactions between Europeans and Native Americans that transformed the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajo into economic dependency on the Europeans. This should be required reading for anyone interested the current social and economic conditions of Native American communities.

* Wilder, Edna. Once Upon An Eskimo Time Anchorage, Alaska: Alaska Northwest Books, 1987. Stories of the lives of the author’s relatives from the contact period.

Wilkinson, Charles. American Indians, Time and the Law New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1987.

Williams, C. Herb and Walt Neubrech. Indian Treaties American Nightmare Seattle, Washington: Outdoor Empire Publishers, Inc., 1976. A sample of the antitreaty sport hunting and fishing literature.

Wintersteen, Teddy. A Brief History of the Bethel, Alaska Moravian Church Anchorage, Alaska: American Speedy Printing, 1988. The first Protestant mission effort in southwest Alaska. This is a commemorative church history.

* Yarber, Yvonne and Curt Madison. Altona Brown a biography Fairbanks, Alaska: Spirit Mountain Press, 1983. A sample of a series of biographies and local histories done by the staff and students of the Yukon-Koyukuk School District of interior Alaska.

Young, Oran R. Arctic Politics; Conflict and Cooperation in the Circumpolar North Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1992. A series of important essays about issues including internal colonialism, health care, village economies, and traditional hunting/gathering by Native peoples.