..Back To Maniixaq (3)
Chester Sivviq Seveck (English Translation)
Uvva Kuuvafmi una ieugubniaqsimaruq Maniixauraq. Maniixauramik makua taiyubabigaat Manialuk. Uvva Nataabnaq ixisimagiksi ukiuruq uvaptigni. Imma saglusufnabaluabaqtuq ixisimasugnabaluabigri uqaluktuabaqtuq. Puqifeiqsuq ieuk. Suli Nuurvikama Aqpialuumtuaq uqabigmigaa, quliaqtuabigmigaa. Ixafa uvva minillakkigri aglaan. Iluqnaan tamarra tusaakkaba.
Aglaan napabrafagguuq Aqpialuum uqabimmagu, abvaluqtamigguuq Nataabnamlu, abvaluktamik itna nunaffualiatun nuvuqaqtuq tamanna napabrafa. Abvaluqtaamik taieea nunaffuatun ittuamik. Suli aksiqulaitkaagguuq ieufnun. Taapkuak uvva minillakkigri.
Suli aullabniieifa Nataabnam uqabigaa. Ieuglugguuq malbuuvlutik tatpamaffa, marra Qixafmiutanik pirabigivut katafmata avieeasugruich makua, ukiumi qatiqtaanik amiqabutif maufa ixiraqtut. Qixafmiutanik pirabigivut. Tamattumagguuq nunafanie malbuuvlutik aaparuafafnik tiligik, "Samufa allibmiunun aakagraqsiubumuatik. Ieufnigli uqautrixxasivlutik, ieufnik anniqsuixxasivlutik piyumuatik aakagraqsiubiabitik," tiligik taapkuak aaparuafafnik. Aakafafnik uqalaitchut. Aaparuafafnigguuq tiligik aakagraqsiubiaquvlugik.
Tavra tillisaakkun imma atqabniqsuk. Qanubutiktai imma, tamanna uqabifitkaak. Tavrali una Maniixauraq sieiqsaaqsiruq. Nunam nunapayaanun sieibraqtuq. Uuma Ieupiam Alaskam ueuani sieibrabaluaqtuq isibviksrabmieik paqifitchuq. Tavragguuq tabium sieaani iglibaluaqami, nunamun pikami, yaiy, paa una qaumagalukkut. Isibumaaqsisuguuq tavrufa. Isiqtuq tavruuna qaumanibman, isibviksraq tikixbieabamiuf, maani tabium sieaani pigaluaqami, taavrumufa nunamun pi'ami isiqtuq. Taimma qanu Kuuvafmun pikami isibniqsuq. Tavra aasii sifaiyaugiaqsivlugu taavruma isibvian.
Taimmali igxua, sumixitai nalugiga. Imma aakagraqsiubmiuqtuaq. Tavra aasii Maniixauraq ibeiabivlugu. Sunauvva taamna taitnasigraq ieuk. Taamnauvva aullabniieifa iqabisuglugu pixxaktufa. Tamanna ilubnaan uqabillakkigri.
Aglaan uvva uuma uqabiqqayabaa suli, minitqayakkaluakkabrii, qixaurraaqqaabunigguuq qixautmik, qapsieik atuqtuallakamiuf, tavra uqaluktuagaqsiraqtuq. Qixautaunnanigguuq uqalaitchuq. Qixaunnigguuq pikamiuf, kasaktuallaaplugu, qapsich amna ixivlugu, uqaaqsiraqtuq.
Tamanna aasii qanulipayaafa uqabigigri nalaullugu tusaakkamnixi uvafa. Aglaitkaluaqtuq, allafuqtabunixu pigaluaqtuq tamanna uqaliqput, tavra aullabniieifalu taapkuak, tatpafmaffaqtausufnaqtuq. Qixafmiutatguuq makua nunafannie aggiqsuq. Tavra aapaqabniraqtuq.
Tamarra uuma uqabigaa, aglaan napabraq abvaluqtamigguuq nuvuqaqtuq. Sumiktai imma.
Uvva napabraqaqtuaqtuaq ixisimagiga. Napabraqabniqsuq Kusugaq. Ixisimagaat tamakkua. Napabraqabniqsuaq tatpikka abvalaqtamiktuaq taitna isuqaqtuq. Nuvuani ittuq. Aksiqulaitmigaa, tamarra ieuum aksifmagu annibealibaqtuq. Tamatkua afatkut piyuaburabniabmarruf iluaqsilaitchuq. Ilaan kisianik tara, ilaa akixiqsubmanni iluaqsixxagaqtuq. Annibeautmik tamanna napabraq piqabufnabniqsuq tamanna. Aksisuabmagu ieuum.
Sivvim Ataalufan Uqabikkafali Tiffun
Suli taamna uqabikkafali taavruma Maniixauram, ataalufma uqabirabigaa, pikamifali before 40 years, "Ataaluuf imma umiaqpak" umiaqpafmik tairabigaali kisianik, tiffuunmik taillaitkaa, " Umiaqpak ifmii iglibiruq, afugisigie ieuupkabutin. Sixakun igliqtuaq imiaqpak, tabiumi iglibmatun. Umiaqpafmi uvva usiaqsiabisirutin. Afugisigie. Nibiugabisigmiutin." Taamna ukpibikkabaali ivrumifa sivunibmik ixisimaniqsuaq. Sumixxi taimma una abnaq ixisimaniqsuq.
Taapkuak aasrii kieuakkun aakagraqsiuqtuaq taimma aakkaggaqtuq. Sunauvva tavra abnamun isibniqsuq taamna. Sifaiyaabivlugu aasiie. Kifuagun suli aakagraqsiuqtuat qapsiuffitchut ixisimakkatkaa uqababimmata. Aakagraqsiuqtuanik samma Ieupiat makua ixaqaqtut. Uuma abnam afutimlu pixiabiffitkaak. Isibaqtugguuq illirrafnun abnam, suvluni taimma.
Apiqsruqtuqti: Maniixauram aasii igxua aakaksraqsiuqtuabli kimik atiqablugu tusaamaitpiuf?
Taiffitkaak taapkuak. Uvva taimmaptuaq ieuum samma nallipsi taisufnabaa taamna. Kuuvafmie suli nunapayaat afatkuqallaarut. Apai uqabmata sivulliuvut makua, kuuvafmiutguuq anaktaitchut, afatkuqaqtut, afatkut makua unniie sapikkafatnik. Taamna sunauvva Maniixauraq. Sapibeigaat ixumun. Uvva afatkuugaluabmiut makua ieuich taamna uvva sapibeibaat afatkut. Uvva Jesus-tun una inniqsuq.
Uqaqtitabaa suli Maniixauraq, taimmagguuq maani tuquniafitchuq nunami. Aullabunigguuq taimma tuqullakkiruq. Paqinniafitkaatguuq maani nunami. Taimmagguuq aullabvifmieun aigiruq. Taamna uqaqtitababigaa suli taavruma Nataabnam. Taimeagguuq uqabaqtuq maanigguuq nalayumieaitchuq una timaa, taimmagguuq aullabvifmieun aigiruq. Imma ieuum uqabigaat taimmaullafnivlugu iglua, taatna naluallugu uqqani.
Chester Sivviq Seveck (English translation)
It is apparent that Maniixauraq grew up with the Kuuvafmiut, or Kobuk River People. Maniixauraq is also referred to as Manialuk. Nataabnaq, of whom many of you (Elders) are familiar, spent a winter with us. You (Elders) probably know that it seems everything he said was not always true, but he spoke of many things. He was an intelligent man. When I went to Noorvik, Aqpialuk also spoke about Maniixauraq. Although you (the participants in this discussion) have missed a part of it, everything else is just as I heard it.
However, according to both Aqpialuk and Nataabnaq, Maniixauraq's pole had a small globe-like sphere on the top end of it. It resembled something like a miniature globe and he never allowed anyone to touch it. This is the part that was not mentioned.
Nataabnaq also spoke about Maniixauraq's origins. He said that the story begins with Maniixauraq's grandfather in the land above, called the land of the Qixafmiutat (lit. those of the sky, heavens), who sent Maniixauraq and another to come down to the earth. Today, when lemmings appear on the earth in their white fur, we refer to them as qixafmiutat. It is said that it was from the land of these creatures that their grandfather told them, "Go down below to look for a mother. Go and find a mother so you can talk to the people and save them." This was what their grandfather said to them. No one ever mentioned a mother or grandmother. Instead, it was the grandfather who sent them in search of a mother.
Following his will, they went down. It is not said how they did this. Maniixauraq began his search, travelling all over the land. He travelled through the Ieupiaq country of Alaska but could not find an ideal entrance. It is said that after travelling through the coastal area, he headed inland, and there he saw an entrance which glowed with a great radiance. He decided to enter it. Having finally reached the entrance which glowed beckoningly, he entered. As it was, he must have entered it upon reaching the Kobuk River. This resulted in the woman, whose body he had entered, becoming pregnant. As for the other one, I do not know what happened to him. He, too, had gone to look for a mother. Maniixauraq was then born and it turned out that he was a great man. That is how the story began.
Everything else has been told. However another thing is that it is said that each time Maniixauraq spoke about things that would happen in the future, he beat his drum for a while first. He then spoke about his predictions after singing a few songs. It is said that he never spoke without his drum. He would take his drum and after each series of beats, he would speak.
Everything else has been told just as I heard it. Although the story has not been written and although our speech has changed over the years including variations here and there, it Is essentially the same story, as it has been demonstrated by the participants of the discussion. I have added the beginning of the story of how it is said that he came from the land of the white lemming, the Qixafmiutat, meaning those of the sky or heavens. He always said that he had a father. I have also spoken about the strange sphere at the tip of his pole. No one knew what it was.
Once I knew a person who had a pole. Kusugaq had a pole. People here know who he was. His pole also had a sphere on top of it. He never allowed anyone to touch it; otherwise, the person became ill if he did so. Although other afatkut tried to cure this illness, the person did not heal unless Kusugaq himself was paid with something. It seems that Kusugaq's pole had the ability to make a person ill as soon as its tip was touched.
Another Prediction of the Airplane
Another thing which Maniixauraq mentioned was also mentioned by my namesake. Forty years before any airplanes ever came, she said to me, "Ataaluuf, there is a large umiaq," she called it a large umiaq, meaning a skin boat, instead of something to fly in. "A large umiaq which travels by itself will come while you are still living. It travels through the air much as a ship travels on the water. You will ride in this large umiaq before you die and you will even eat leisurely in it." I believed her to have known some of the future. This woman knew somehow, but how, I do not know.
Those Who Came In Search of a Mother
As for the two who came in search of a mother, Maniixaq came and was born of a woman. From what I have heard, there were only a few who did that after him. You see, some of these Ieupiat here have relatives who came in search of a mother and found one. This person is not conceived by a man and woman. It is not said how, but it is said that the spirit of that person enters the womb of a woman and the woman becomes impregnated.
Researcher Craig: As for the other who also went looking for a mother, have you ever heard his name?
Nataabnaq and Aqsivaaluk did not say his name. However, I believe one of the Elders mentioned his name. There were many afatkut along the Kobuk River. According to our ancestors, whenever they spoke of afatkut along the Kobuk, they spoke in superlative terms, saying that no one was able to beat some of their afatkut and in fact, they had one that even the afatkut could not do anything against. As it turned out, it was Maniixauraq whom they were referring to. He was indeed powerful and they could not do anything against him. Although there were afatkut all over, they could not overcome him. He was quite similar to Jesus.
Nataabnaq also quoted Maniixauraq as saying that he would not die here on earth. He said he would leave and die someplace else. They would not find him anywhere on earth. He would return home to where he came from. He said that the remains of his body would not lie on the ground. Instead, he would return to his original home. Someone just said that his partner mysteriously disappeared just as Maniixaq said he, himself, would.
Researcher Craig: Where was his wife from? Do they ever say where his wife was from?
From what I have heard, she was a Sixailieibmiu, from somewhere to the North.
Robert Aqqaluk Newlin (English Translation)
Uvafauvva uqaqtuksraunbitchaluaqtufa nutauplufa, aglaan uvva aanagali uqaaqtubaqtuq taatna ilipsi uqajjapsigun.
Sivuniksraq Uqautigigaa Ixagiplugu Sixajhieakun UqajiksrafatTaatna uvva napaqsraqabnipxugu, suli uvanigguuq Sivvim uqautigillakkaa qixautiqabnipxugu. Uvva aanaa taatna uqautigirabigaa. Aglaan uvva atuuraaqtitlugulu pirabigaa. Taatnaurabniallabmigguuq, "Yaiy," kamatchagaqtuq. "Yaiy, uvva qabanaqsigisiruq." Aggibisiruq uvva uqajiq. Uqajibmik imma aggiutripchaqtaqjugich uqabaqtuq. Aglibnaibisirugguuq. Uvva aglaan taatna uqabaqtuq. Siligguuq uvva ukua uqajhatitun uqabaqtuq, taatna aggibisieipxugich iglaat sixakun. Suli uqabaqtuq ieuitguuq uqauraalibisirut sixajhieakun. Nakiteasraabrugguuq sumik uqaqpata naalaktualibisigaich ieuich. Naaqaagguuq ukuak ieeuk ufasrigiikkaluabutik ifmiknunguuq uqauraalibisiruk. Tamatkunifa taatna uvva uqaaqtuqtitababigaa aanaa. Uvva tamanna uqautigillaktibukkaba taatna puuyuqtibnaqtuq uvani uqaqtuni, uqautigisrukkaq aasrii puuyuqjugu.
Sixam IsrukjitchaajiksrafaUvva taatna uqabaqtuq. Suli taatnaurabniallabmigguuq, tamatkua makua uqautigikkafat uqaaqtuutigikmirabigaat taatna. Aglaanguuq uvva taatnaurabniallabmi, ixaatni uvluq tikitkisiruq, itna uvluq aviktikkatun itna, taimmagguuq tikitkisiruq. Taatna taavaniafa uqautigitlaitmiyaagguuq. Taatna uqaaqtuabaqtuq aanaga.
Robert Aqqaluk Newlin (English translation)
I feel that I should not speak because I am young in comparison to the Elders here but mother spoke just as the Elders here have spoken.
The Predictions (Including the Telephone)
Just as I have heard it, he always had a pole, and as Sivviq said, he also had a drum. Mother also said that he sang songs. She said that after each singing, he exclaimed, "Yaiy!" which is an expression of praise or awe. He said, "Yaiy, it will all become easy. The word shall come." He said people would come with the word. He said that taboos would no longer be adhered to and that strangers would come through the sky. Mother also said that he predicted that people would speak through the air with ease. If a person spoke from a far off place, people would be able to hear him. Even if people were far from one another, they would be able to speak to each other. Those are some of the things mother spoke about.
I wanted to share all these things but sitting on this chair (in front of the microphone), it is easy to forget what one planned to say.
Mother related it just as everyone has told it here. However, she said that as Maniixaq made his predictions, he came to the end and said some day a day would come that would be like a day which suddenly had split in half. He did not speak of any future following this day. That is what mother said.
Rachel Savibummuaq Craig (English Translation)
Itluutim Tiguabmigun Kieuviafi
Della Keats ixisimagiksi. Maaniitchujallakkaluaqtuq Maniixaurriqiyupsi, aglaan qakipkua utqiabvifmiuttuuq inuqsraqhutif Della Keats-mik tatqakmufautigilgitchaa. Uvvaasiie tatqakmaniqsiuqman 1973-mi August 2, 1973, imma abnamik qieibniqsuq Jean Tardis-mik atilifmik. Ieupiaqsisiqaqtuamik aasriie Kasaun. Tiguabinikkafaniik Itluutim, Maniixam ibeifan. Ukuagguuq Bailey-ramlu, Mary Walker-mlu aniqataaknik.
Uvva uqaqtinniaqjugu ixitchubikamiuf kisuutilaafa, taamnaligguuq Kasaun uqaqtuq Maniixaq tuqunipxugu aullaqamif Utqiabvifmie. Fort Delta-mi tamaanigguuq aasriie apqutaatni ixuviqjugu. Taatnali uqautinibaa. Taamna aasii uvva Naluabmiumik uieikhuni Gus Tardis-mik. Aasiie qulifubutaixanik qitunbanikhutik. Marra Ieupiaqsisifich Itluun, Maniixaq, Kumak, Iqsieaaluk, Taktuk, Annaqtuuq, Ivatchak, Saafiaq, Aaluk. Afafanguuq atqa Ivibaaqtuaq, Kigubuya. Kigubuyamiktuuq atiqaqpaluktuq taamna. Taamna Ivibaaqtuaq Qutuum aniqatigivalukkaa. Aakaqaqhuni aasrii Qutufmik. Taamna Qutuk, Itluutim ixaqatigiplugu. Taavrumani 1973-mi, ieuugaluabniqsuq Akjabvifmi Qutuk taamna. Taatnasieigli uvva unniqillakjufa Della-m maaniitchumieaiteami. Uvva Naluabmiutun aglaurallafnikkafi, Florence, George, Emily, Ramona, Andy, Agnes, Jack, Lily, and Pauline. Tavra taapkua ixaginibaat. Taapkunifali uvva Della-m unniqiplufa uqautigillakitka.
Rachel Savibummuaq Craig (English translation)
Itluun's Adoptive Descendents
You are all familiar with Della Keats. She wished to be here during the discussion of Maniixauraq but was called to travel north to Barrow. However, she related to me that when she was in Barrow in August 2, 1973, she met a woman named Jean Tardis. Her Ieupiaq name was Kasaun. She was the adopted daughter of Itluun, who was Maniixaq's son. She was actually the sister of Bailiuraq and Mary Walker.
Realizing who she was, Della asked her about Maniixauraq and Kasaun said that Maniixaq passed away after leaving Barrow. He was buried somewhere on the trail by Fort Delta. That is what she told her.
Jean apparently married a naluabmiu named Gus Tardis. They have nine children. Here are some of their Ieupiaq names: Illuun, Maniixaq, Kumak, lqsieaaluk, Taktuk, Annaqtuuq, Ivatchak, Saafiaq and Aaluk. Her uncle's name was Kigubuya. Qutuk's brother was Ivigaaqtuaq. Her mother was Qutuk, Itluun's wife. According to her, Qutuk was alive at Akjabvik in Canada in 1973. This is what Della told me when she realized she would not be in this discussion.
Here are the English names of the children that Della listed: Florence, George, Emily, Ramona, Andy, Agnes, Jack, Lily and Pauline. That family is related by adoption to Maniixauraq.
Elwood Uyaan Hunnicutt
Taamna tavra Ivibaaqtuaq una irruma ixaqatma aapafan aniqatigimagaa. Irruma Susie-m aapafan aniqatigimagaa Ivibaaqtuaq. Tatqaani Akjaabrufmi ieuuniaqtuaq itqaarabigaa ataramik. Qitunbaqabnipxugu tatqakmani. Ixafat uvva Agnes-mik atilik nalliatatai pania, Quarterly-miutiqmata ixaatni maani Utqiabvifmiutigun ixaupxuni aggiqsuq. Abnaq taatna afipiafieeiqsuaq, Agnes-mik atilik.
Elwood Hunnicutt (English translation)
Ivibaaqtuaq was the brother of my wife's father. My father-in-law often remembered him and said he lived with his children up north in Aklaabruk.
Once during a church meeting here, a woman named Agnes came. She was a relative of his. She was not too tall.
Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English Translation)
Uvva kafiqsieiabataqtugut sapibeallapiaqtuamik suli tusraaraksrafatnik. Uvva ilipsi isrumaritun ittusri. Kinnaksautikun itna ami tasramma taavruma ixaaksrabinbitpagu ixisimaniabiksi. Ijuaqtuksramik, ijuaqsaqtaksramik uvva uqaqtugut. Taimma kafiqsieaqsixugu taimma savaaksramik uvva uqaqtugut. Una aasriie uvafa kinnaksautikunli pisukkaluaqnagu inniqpan, taimma isrumarit, imma takku presi-taqput amna Cabinet-taqaqtuq, isrumariqaqtuq, aasrii taapkua taimma savagvifmi isrumaturuat piatigun uqaqtifupluni. Taatnatun uvva ittusri ilipsi.
Uvva uqallafniaqtufa uumifa. Uvva Kiubuya samma taamna, kiubuya liimmaa manna itrifuqhuni pirabaqtuaq taamna, tavra taamna kiubuya. Tusraamallaksimagiga, aglaan uvva kafiqsieaqsipxugu uqautriqabniqsugut tamaakfa. Canada-miufumarut, Pamiumilifmiuni qakmani, taapkua Ivatchablu, Suluglu qakma. Neal T. Allen taamna, Jack Tardis-kut ukua taimma anifagisruknabaat taamna. Taamma ixisimaniaqtuq taamna Neal T. Allen. Aapiyafa una Ivatchak tuquaniktuq Sitfasuami.
Uvva aasriie uqallafniaqtufa uvva uumifa. Uvva Maniixauram unniie samma iivvaqsaat itnakkafich ieugli tuqukman. Taimma Maniixauram, uuma Iivvaqsaaniktuuq uqabaluaqtuq. Aglaan sivuani samma Anaqtubvifmiut ukua tatqapkua, Nuataabmiut ixisimaniqsut iivvaqsaanik. Uvva taamna ukiuq unniie uvafnun illaagaluaqtuq uqautiginbitqatabiga. Iivvaqsaat qanuq una miunifat.
Uvvagguuq taimanixi imma ifixbaan uqaaqsirut, iivvaqsaatguuq imma qamakfa uvlum tufaanie aggibisirut. Tuquruatguuq makitqioiksrafat.
Sixallieibmiutguuq ukua ixafat tuquniqsuq. Uvva aasriie uixigaqhuni abnaq. Aanaga uqaaqtubaqtuq taatna, Qakiblu tatqaani ieuuniaqsimaruk. Qakma ieugiaktuani ukiuni ieugubniaqsimaruk. Uvva aasriie tatqakmani itkaluaqmata aanafata, Ullaam uuma, afixbautiplugich ixaqatniktabiniagaqsikmatigik.
Uvva aasriie Iivvaqsaaniq uqaqtufa uvva. Taamnagguuq Katufmik atilik uixigabniqsuq, Annaqaalufmik atilifmik. Qiagaqsieiqsuq abnaq. Uvva aasriie taamna Annaqaaluk aniqatiqaqhuni afutmik. Taimmagguuq utlakkaa taavruma ukuani. Taamna, "Katuuk," itnaqtitababigaa uvva. Ukuani uuma Annaqaaluum aapiyafan. "Katuuk uumaa, qiafurafiabie. Annaqaaluk tavra Iivvaqqaat sivuatigun aggiqqaallagruabmixunixu. Iraigutiuraanifniabmiutillu. Iivvaqqaat ipkua qalliviieeabnigaich," itnabaagguuq. Tavra araaqtubaa. Tuquruatguuq makua makitqiksabumarut. Taamakfagguuq kivaknam tufaanie aggibeiaqtut Iivvaqsaat. Tuquruapayaagguuq imea iluqani Iivvaqsaafuluni aggibeiaqtuq. Itnabaagguuq taamna. Uvva aasriie ixaffaqamifli taimma Iivvaqsaanik araaqtubnibaich.
Aasriieguuq, aanaga uqabaqtuq, tuqu'amigguuq ieuk pakma Anirabvigguuq nunaksrautvut tuquqqaabuta. Unagguuq tuqujiqput Bible-lut sivuatni uqautiginibaat taipkua utuqqaich, afitqioiksraun. Anirabvigguuq tatpakma nunaksraqput.
Aasriieguuq ieuum samma, Anirabvifmiut asriafat asriafuraq samma nakautalik atautchimik, aasriie orange-tun qaaqaqhuni. Aasriie samma qikiqtaptikni qamma paqinnaqmiuq ixaatni. Ichani nunaaqqiuramni Shungnak-village akian, amma Amaabniabviurami samma paqinnaqmiuq ixaatni. Taamnagguuq Anirabvifmiut asriafat nibieianbitchikput. Taimmagguuq napaaqtuulugu niqiksrautvut Anirabvifmi, taivrumani nunami sivunibikkaptitni. Anirabvigguuq taimma taamna. Tavrugguuq atqa taavruma. Nunam imma nunaksrautipta tuqulbaabuta tikisaksrapta. Tavragguuq taamna Anirabvifmiut asriafat taimanigu aglaan nibigisiikput. Nibieiapiaqnagugguuq, aanagalu Qakiblu uqabaqtuk.
Uvva ikpaksraaq isrumagikkaba pakiuranbitchiga aggiutisrukjugu uvufa. Aglaan uvluqabniqsuni pieabisivaluktuq. Orange-tun ittuat ieugiakkaluaqmiut iebiei. Pieasruurabaqtut itna tamatkua. Tamatkuafunbitchut. Nalunaitchuq, tasramma nakuatalik atautchimik Anirabvifmiut asrifat, ieiqtibutaak maamaa Qakibumlu. Taimanigguuq nunami taivrumani niqiksrautvut.
"Iivvaqsaat," uvva itnabaluaqtut, uuva naluabmiunik liilaa aggibeiaqtuanik uqaqhutif. Aglaan taipkua sivuani Maniixauram taimma "Iivvaqsaat," itnaqamif, afitqijiksrautaat taimmagguuq tuquruat iluqatif taivrumani. Taimeagguuq uvluq kamanabniqsuq, "Iivvaqqaat aggixxagruaqpata," taavruma Annaqaaluum aapiyafan itnabaa. Taimmagguuq uvlum tufaanie pieiaqtuq. Taimmagguuq tautuutitqirviksraqput, itnagguuq ixaffaqmata araaqtuutiqabniqsut taipkua.
Tasramma ikayuqtigiiksillugu una, taimma Sixallieibmiut qakma taamna Iivvaqsaat aggitqioiksrafat nakie imma taamna satqumiqpan afitqioiksraun Iivvaqsaatigun, taimma ikayuqtiqabniaqtufa tusraallaksimaruamik. Uvva uvafa naqimmiruatun pipkaurallakkaluaqtufa taavrumuuna, ukiuq unniie. Uqaaqtullagukkaluaqtufa taavrumifa Iivvaqsaat imma aggibeiajhatnik. Afitqibviksrautmik taivrumifa Iivvaqsaanik. Aasrii Sixallieibmiut ukua uqautiginibaat. Aanaa unniie tusraamanikkafa ifixgaan, ieuutqibviksraun taimea.
Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English translation)
We have been discussing a complicated subject that many people will hear about. You, Elders, are a thinking body. If an error has been made or perhaps if something has been included when it should not have been, you will know. We have been discussing something which will need revision and editing. It will have to be (written) plainly and made easy to understand. If this has any unintentional errors, you are the thinkers. It is like our president, who has cabinet members who help him to solve problems and direct him and he acts as their spokesman. You are like that. You are thinkers.
I, too, have heard of Kiubuya. Kiubuya also means the northern lights or aurora borealis. We have heard about that family. Ivatchak, Suluk and he were from Canada. I do believe that Neal T. Allen was the older brother of Jack Tardis and them. Neal T. Allen should know. His older brother, Ivatchak, died in Nome.
Maniixauraq spoke of the iivvaqsaat but I am going to tell about what else I know about that word. Before Maniixaq's time, people in the north country of Anaktuvik Pass and the Noatak area spoke of the Iivvaqsaat. I thought of mentioning the meaning of it last year but suppressed it until now.
It is said that people spoke of iivvaqsaat from many years back. A long time ago they said that the iivvaqsaat would come from the direction of daylight, or the east. It was said to be the time when the dead would rise again.
According to a story I heard from mother, one of the people in the north had died, making one of the women a widow. Mother told the story because she and my uncle Qakiq had lived in the north once for several years. When it seemed that people were interested in marrying them, their mother Ullaaq brought them back home to the Upper Kobuk area.
Returning to the subject of the meaning of the word iivvaqsaat, it is said that the widow's name was Katuk and her husband's name had been Annaqaaluk. The poor woman began to weep for her husband. Annaqaaluk had a brother. This brother approached his weeping sister-in-law and said (in a northern Ieupiaq dialect), "Stop crying Katuk. You see, someday Annaqaaluk shall return ahead of the iivvaqsaat just as you have cried your poor eyes out. They say that the iivvaqsaat are coming even closer." This was his way of comforting her. It was said that the dead would some day rise again and that the iivvaqsaat would appear from the east. All the people who had died would come back as iivvaqsaat. They spoke of the iivvaqsaat to comfort one another in the event of death.
Mother also said that when people die, they go to the land of Anirabvik (which lit. means 'place of going out'). She said that this was where we go when we die. This was the belief held by the people before the Bible was introduced to them. This was how they explained death. It was the place where people would 'come out' from.
She said that this land of Anirabvik had a single stemmed orange colored fruit. This fruit is seen, although rarely, in the Upper Kobuk area. I have found it on an island across from Shungnak at Amaabniabviuraq. It is said that we must never eat this fruit of the Anirabvik. Instead, we would eat it from a tree someday at Anirabvik, in the land where we would inevitably be after death. Only then could we eat this fruit. However, mother and Qakiq said that we must never eat it here on earth.
I thought of searching for this fruit to bring here and show it to everyone. However, if one is granted some days in the future, it may still be possible. There are many of these orange fruits in the mountains but they have three stems instead of one. Therefore, they are different. They are not the ones I am talking about. The difference is obvious. It was the single stemmed one which was the fruit of Anirabvik which mother and Qakiq said not to eat.
According to what most people have said here, it seems to be understood that the word iivvaqsaat meant the white people that did come after Maniixauraq's prediction but this word was used even before his time. At that time, it referred to the dead people rising again. It was said that on that day all the dead would rise again and it was also said that the day would be very great. Annaqaaluk's older brother had said, "When the iivvaqqaat come." It is said that they will come from the direction of daylight, meaning the east. The people comforted one another saying it would be the time when we would all see one another again.
We must all cooperate in solving the meaning of this word. If anyone from the north has heard about it in any manner, they might want to say something. If anyone has heard about a time when the dead would reappear, he should speak up. Last year, I suppressed this information which I had heard but now I have the wish to share it. The people in the north used this term and mother had heard about it many years ago. It would be a time when everyone would live again.
Dinah Aviq Frankson (English Translation)
Tusaaraptignikkii uvva aanaaqaqhuta utuqqauruanik, suli aanaaptignie naalagaqtugut ieugubniabapta. Naagga subuguta, suvluta, aliasuffitkaluabapta ixaanni aanaaptifnie sauksibaqtugut. Inna uqayunaiqsibuta. Tavrali taieeakiaq ixigapta abnaqatiutkalu katitibuta taapkua Samarullu, Nibuvallu, aakaalu, Aabiagumlu uqautiaqsigaatigut nipaisaabuta naalaktuaquvluta.
Immagguuq Uivvaqsaat ixaanni qakugun taimma aggibniaqtut. Nakuurualbainnatguuq nunagrautaat taimea Uivvaqsaaq, imma kaivallagatabisiruq, aggibisiruq. Taimmaligguuq una Tikibaq nalaulbataqpagu, maufagguuq nunamun tunfaluni itchumieaitchuq. Taimmagguuq tainna iglibisiruq. Ieuitguuq nakuuruat avlullakkisirut, tavrufa ikugisirut. Uvva kafiqsisimni, ami Revelation-mi riiqtuni, taimma New Jerusalem taimea paabutivigraun, Jesus aggifaiefaaan, ixaptifnik tammaivigraqput, taavrumufali kafiqsimagiga. Kafiqsimaruatun ixafich, ixafich tamaaffa makillutif tavrufagguuq ikugirut. Nunagguuq taamna nauriamik suvigrauraitchuq, qukieaqtuq, quvianaqtuq nunagrautaat nakuuruat.
Dinah Aviq Frankson (English translation)
Many of us had grandparents to whom we listened as we were growing up. They were old and knew many things and we heard what they said. Sometimes when we wrestled and played, they scolded us and told us to listen quietly. Samarun, Nibuvan, Aabiak and mother told me and my cousins stories.
They said that someday in the future, exactly when they did not know, the uivvaqsaat would come. This uivvaqsaat was to be the land of all good people and it would be rotating as it arrived. When it reached Pt. Hope, it would not touch the ground. It would continue to be in motion. They said that all the good people would simply step into it. From what I understand now as a grown woman and after listening to the missionaries who came later, I read the book of Revelations in the Bible and understand it to be New Jerusalem. It would be the time when Jesus came and we would part with some of our relatives and friends. After all, it is said that the dead would rise again and embark. They said that this land was abundant in plants and flowers and that it was a beautiful and joyful place. It was to be the land of the good people.
Tommy Masruana Lee (English Translation)
Maniixamik uqaqmata tusraangixxakkitka uvlaavak. Qanuqtai uqaqpat. Afatkuunivatruf suvatruftai. Afatkuabnipxugugguuq aqautigirabigaat, takku afatkuaqhutif atuqhutif taipchua pisuuniqsut. Atuqhuniptuugguuq piraqtuq, aasriie uqaaqsipxuni. Taivrumufa ieufmun uqaksrieeipxuni uqaaqsiraqtugguuq. Uvvagguuq afatchiabmieigguuq ixafani pirabigaa. Naaggaqaa ixaatni uqaksrisaqtimieigguuq pirabigaa. Suli ixaatnimi taavrumifagguuq uqaqukmani uvva uqalgitchuq, itnabaqtugguuq taatna atuuraaqqaaqhuni.
NuvubaqUkpibigiga Maniixam uqaqsimajha. Ivisaappaani nunaaqqiurami, taamna taikea, nunaaqqim taavruma akia, nuvubaq kivigisieipxugu itnabniqman, qamma taamna nuvubaq malbufnik taatna kannibiiksuaburaaqhutik taatna samufa kataktiqataqsimaruk. Uvvaquyuuraq aasrii taamna kuuk tautuktuni taatna tasramufa itjallaaruq. Ixafa qikuupluni. Taamna uqautiginikkafa kivigisieipxugu. Taamna kivigisiruaq ixisimanaqtuq, taatnasriuruq, qikuuruq.
Maniixablu AfatkulluSuli taimma uqautigivalukkaat afatkunik makunifa iisixiqatajhieaunipxuni, uqaqtitaqpalukkaat uvlaavak. Tara suli tara taavruma uqaqtuam ieuum uqaksrisaqtiqajibmigun, ixumutun saffiruafuruq. Afatkutguuq tamatkua taatna anayagiliutiplugu, taatna uqaqtaqman taimma piyugaqnibaat. Ami itna sieikman, supman, taamna ieuk tuqutchunbitmipxugulu itna tauttuagun, ieuusriagun saffipxutif, killuuplutif, ieufmik tuqutchitxaruafuplutif, tuqutchukkaluababigaat, ieuujhagguuq taavruma ieuum paqitlaitchaat. Taututlaitchaat. Tautukkumieaitchaat taamna, agaayyutim pigigaa. Killuum maakfa akiixiyumieaitpagitxugu, naukun unniie piyumieaitchaa.
Suli taavrumifa uqallaglufa, ixisimakkaba uqautigillagukjugu isrummatigigiga. Taavruma ixaginbitchaluabaa. Kivani Onion Portage-mi, five-six years contract-lugu savaktugut. Tasramma qanuqtai, four feet, qanuqtai ititigiplugu matumakfa qaafanie, saunibnik ieuich savalbutiqaqsimarut. Tamarra savalbutillu, affugaurallu saunifich, naaggaqaa tamatkua qanutchich subutchich. Tasramma four feet suplugu taimma savalbutiqaqsimarut.
Taavruma savagvigikkabma taatnatun aglaan taimma forty-one-mie aglaan savagvigikkabma, taatnatchiqirim uqabvigirabigaafa. Uvanigguuq tabium sieaani tatqakma Point Hope-mun aglaan savaaqabniqsut. Imma suli atla taakti tatqakmani ukiirabaqhuni. Taamna taakti ukiipxuni taatnatunguuq ititilaalifmik uvani tagium sieaani, qakmakfa aglaan utuqqautigiruamik paqinbitchut. Taragguuq taamna Onion Portage, Paatitaat, ifixbaapiabataq ieuich ieuuniabvigimagaat. Tara tasramma taavrumakfa four feet itnakkamnie nalautchaaqjugu pigiga.
Tasramma suli four feet qanuqtai imma, tasramma suli saunibnik avuixaaqjugich tasramma makunifa akmaanik atchuixanik iyabafnik itnatchieik taatna savaanik, tasramma ieuich suli savalbutiqaqsimarut. Tasramma utuqqauniqtat. Aasriie tasramma natiqjiqpiaq taatna tabium natqatun, makunifa uvixuuranik tabium afalatchuusrimakkafieik makunifa, tasramma natiqjiqpiaq, tasramna suixaaq natiqaqtuq.
Tatkivva Onion Portage uqautigigaa. Ieugguuq ieugiaktaaq tarakfa Onion Portage-mie tamaakfa tasramma napmupayaagguuq siamisrimasruknaqtuq. Taimani tasramma utuqqaich tasrapkua ixafich ikniqabviurat taatna tupqixaami nalunaitchut. Taamna uqautigillakkiga.
NapaqsrafaManiixauram taavruma uqaksrisaqtaali, tamanna napaqsrafa ieuqaqpalufniqsubli pakmakfaqtamik. Tamarrumakfagguuq uvva uqaksrisabnipxuni uqabaqtuq. Afatkut aasriigguuq ieugiaktaat piyukkaluabaat sapibaatguuq qaumavagitxuni.
Tommy Qutitchiaq Lee (English translation)
The Source of His Power
I did not listen to the discussion on Maniixaq this morning. I wonder what they said? I wonder if they said he was an afatkuq or what? People often said that he was an afatkuq because in those days the afatkut sang and summoned their helping spirits. It is said that Maniixaq also sang and then spoke about strange things that would happen in the future. He said that he received his words from someone whom he sometimes referred to as his uncle. At other times he referred to it as 'the one who gave him words to say.' After singing some songs, he said he spoke only when he was directed to.
I believe in Maniixaq's predictions. He said that the point across from the present village of Ambler would sink, and this is evident today for the two adjacent points have already begun to sink. Upon inspection, it is easy to see that the water level of the river there is deep. Some of the soil content of the river bank is clay. He predicted that it would sink and his prediction is believable today because the point is mostly clay.
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
It is most likely that the people who participated in the discussion this morning spoke of how Maniixaq said he could easily swallow the afatkut if he wanted to. It is true that Maniixaq, who claimed to receive his ideas of the future from elsewhere, was powerful. Because of Maniixaq's apparent disregard of the afatkut as the ultimate powers during that time, they grew cautious of him and tried to kill him. That is, they attempted it whenever he was asleep because, being wrongdoers, they were capable of killing people through their inner beings. They did not want to kill him through his visual self so they tried it through his spirit, but could never find this inner being. They could never see it because he was of God. Because evil could never conquer him, there was no way they could kill him.
Moving on to another subject, I wish to tell something else I know. We once worked at Onion Portage, which is located up the Kobuk River, on a contract basis for about five to six years. Four feet deep into the ground, we found evidence that people once used bones for tools. There we found bones of small game animals and other tools.
I worked for the archaeologist since nineteen forty-one and he told me some things. He said that they were involved in archaeological digs along the Alaskan coast all the way to Pt. Hope. There was another man with a doctorate degree who lived in Pt. Hope for several winters. He said that this doctor also did some archaeological investigation there but reportedly did not find anything older than what they found at Onion Portage. He said that Onion Portage was an ancient site. I am estimating the number of feet down where we found the bone implements. About ten feet into the ground, we found that people had tools made of chert (flint) instead of bones. These were older than the bone implements.
At the very bottom where we made the dig, we found sea shells and other things of the ocean. We did not find anything else at this bottom level.
I am talking about Onion Portage. They said that from the findings, they concluded that many people originated from Onion Portage and scattered all over. Evidence of a cluster of abandoned hearths left by people long ago are quite obvious upon inspection. This information is what I wished to share.
As for Maniixaq's source of his predictions, it must have had something to do with his wooden staff or pole. He must have connected with this source through the use of this pole. This source was probably somewhere above. He did say that he received his inspiration for his predictions through the pole. The afatkut tried to kill him but his spirit glowed so brilliantly they could not overcome it.
(Uumifali Uyubaq Tatqavim uqaqtinnibaa nuksiteanun January, 1981-mi Akuliqqami agliqutiqqaaqjugu Maniixakun uqabikkafiteik Anausuumlu suli utuqqanaat katimaruat).
Fay Uyubaq Foster (English Translation)
Uvva naalaktuaburaajjamni ieuich ieugiaktaat uqabigaluabnibaat. Imea paapaa afatchiafa, "Afatchiaba," itnabuugaa Maniixauraq taimea. Maamafanguuq Imbusrim aniqataa. Uqaaqtuutigiuraallaakmagu kafiqsieiurablugu pitxaitchaqnibiga, itna mauna uqautigilugu isrumanbixxuqjufa, naluplufa ami. Uqaaqtuqtinnayabaluabaqnikkaba afatchiafanik. Tara tusraarabigiga taatna. Uvva ieuum ieugiaktuam uqaaqtuutigillafnibaa tamarra tusraasruukkaqput. Kiapayaaq uqaaqtuutigillafnibaa.
Uvva paapaa uqaaqtuutigi'amiuf taimma tamanna napaqsraq uqabikkafat, qanuq suqpauramik ixaqablugu uqautigitlaitchaa. Tara aglaan qixxiqiplugugguuq samma sumik imeatai, qapvivieauramik, sumik imea tamanna taatna napaqsraq, uqabaqtuq. Taragguuq aglaan napapkababigaa. Tara suli uqaqtitababigaa taatna, "Uqaksriqsuqtima pakivruma," itnabnirabigaa suli tara.
Uvva aasrii taamna uvafa uqabianikkaqsi ixxatiksraitpaurabaluaqtibiga, aglaan uvva paapaa atchiusrimagaa abnamun afatchai. Tara qitunbaqatlaitxutik paapatkuk taipchua sivulliich afayuuvut tuqullaaplutifguuq ixipmata, Maniixaq afatchai atchiutilgieeibaa abnamun. Tara aasrii tasramma paipiupluni, qanuqtai ixipxuni, tuqullaksaaqsixgitchuaq taunani unani Qikiqtabrufmi, imma Afaluksraq una qanublitai ittuaq ikayuqtisriubvigiplugu. Taavruma aasriitai Afaluksram qanuqjugutai imaqtiqjugu suplugutai ieuupkaqjugu. Tara sunauvva qitunbaqayusripxutik. Tara aasrii nukabiiei uvagut taamna maamavut piibaluaffaan, taatnatun aglaali ieuullafniqsugut taipchunakfa.
Uvva taamna uqaaqtuutigikkaqsi paapaa uqaaqtuutigillaa'amiuf, pakmakfagguuq uqaqtitlugu pirabigaa. Suligguuq taimma ixaatni nuna tautufnibaa. Uvva akkuvak naalaktuabaluaqtufa taamna itqallaktaitmatun igiplugu uqabillafniabiga.
Nunagguuq sixa, sixagguuq tautufnibaa qieilgunaieeiqsuaq. Uvva aasrii atlayuabiplugu kafiqsisukjugu pigaluaqjugu kafiqsianinbiteamiuf atuusriaqsipxuni. Taamna nuna qieikkani sixaavyagruavafmik taipxugu. Uvva atubaluababigaa taataa taklipxugu, aglaan uvva taisabnaurat qapsich imea atuutaanie taivrumakfa itqagillatuabitka.
Itnagguuq atubaqtuq. Taimmagguuq sixa nuna tautukkaluabaa nanitai tatpaani, ixitchubinbitmieibaaptuuq. Taamna uvva tusraanbiteapku ixxatigillakkiga.
Tara suli Maniixaq. Maniixauraq, itnabuugaat. Uvvali pakma aquvaatigun Maniixaq una kafiqsimagaat ieuich ieugiaktuat uumuuna manikun. Maniksigun makunuuna kafiqsimagaat. Paapaali uqautigi'amiuf atqagguuq taamna Maniixaq, qaibiitchuaq. Maniixaq itna ami rough-furuaq. Qaibiitchuamik taatnagguuq taiyuutiqaqtuq. Marrumifa manimigguuq atukkaptitnik piunbitchuq. Atiqaqtuq qaibiitchuamik Maniixaq. "Maniieeiqsuq tara," sua qaibiieeiqhuni pipman taatnatchikunguuq atiqaqtuq, itnababigaat suli uvva. Qanuqhunitai taatna atiqabniqpa. Tara qanuba pakmakfaqtaupluni pi'ami taatna atiqaqpaluktuq. Taatna aglaan uvva paapaa uqabirabigaa. Taatnatchimik atiqabnipxugu.
Taatna aasriie uvva taluqsraieeiqsuq. Taatnali tara taatna pakivruma agaayyutim taimakfa qafa ieuich naluffaisa uuyugipluguli taatna pixxafnibaa.
Uvva ieugiaktuam ieuum uqabillafniqmagu taatna uvafa kamagilugu liilaa, ixagiplugu ami, sivulliabiplugu kamaksrulguitmatun itaba. Naalaktuaburaabaluaqama, attii tara kamanaqtuafuplugu liilaa uqallafniqmata quyyatigillapiabiga. Taimma ifmieik piebitchuq. Agaayyutim tarali taatnatchimik imaqaqtitlugu pieibaa.
Sivuniksraq Tikiebitchuaq Suli
Taipchuak ukiuk naaggaqaa auraak uuyulibiiksabumaruak tikiebiefurabniqsuk suli. Tara nibisukpagviksraq taimea. Nibisukpagviksraq uvva una taapkufnifa uuyulibiiksraafnik uqaqami uuyugisruknaqmigaa, taatna uqabisruknaqmieikkafa.
Tara suli kivrumifa Ivisaappaamik taatna nunaaqqiqpaguqtuksramik uqaqami uvva immiuraagaqsixxapiaqsimaruq. Tatkivva aullaqniifaniksimaruq, ami tatkimea.
Tara tatkimea abvibum puiviksrautaa iyaalugruu'apta iivaqsaabakkaqput uvagut tatkivani Ivisaappaani aippaani ieuuniuraqapta. Taimma itillapiabataqtugguuq itiqsraqpauratun. Taatniitman uvva taimma qanubuni samuuna nunam ataaguabuni unnii tatkivuuna puiyaqtuabisivaluktuq. Takku manna kuuk ulitpauraqpan itiniabaluaqmiuq. Qanuqtai makua abvibich ittuat taatna naaggaqaa nunam ataagun iglitlavat.
Apiqsruqtuqti: Naaggaqaa uqsruabriqpan unna, annaksabiabumif?
Apiqsruqtuqti: Uvva kuvisikpata tabiumun, makua uqsruabrufniaqtuat kuvisirabaliqsut. Qanupayaaq pieiaqtuq. Ukpiqnaqtuq.
Ukpiqnaqtuq, ii. Ukpiqnallapiaqtuq.
Uvva akisuruaq taimea taiyuqmatruf uqaqtuat makua isifnaq tatpieea kiluatni iebich qieiqtuni ixaatni sufaaqtaafuuraaqmatun ixaatni itkaluabaqtuq, aglaan uvva atlaukmatun ittuq taivrumakfa uqabikkaptiknie. Taimma atlauvaluktuq taimea akisuruaq kattutiksrauruaq tatkivufa.
Uvva quyallaktufa suli taimma qitunbai qakma paqijaplugich itna tusraa'ama tautullagukmatun unniie ixixibaluaqtufa. Taatna ixaqajiq nanipayaaq nakuuruq.
(This recording of Uyubaq was made by Tatqavieia on January of 1981 at Selawik after reading the material on Maniixaq as told by the Elders and by Beatrice Mouse)
Fay Uyubaq Foster (English translation)
As I listened, I found out that many people have spoken about him. Father referred to Maniixauraq as his uncle. Maniixauraq was his mother's brother. Whenever he told about him, I did not pay much attention because I had no idea that I would someday be telling what I do know. In those days, I did not realize the significance of Maniixauraq; otherwise, I would have had father speak about Maniixauraq repeatedly. Anyway, they have spoken about the same things I have also heard. All the things we heard have been mentioned by the Elders. Many people participated in the discussion.
According to father, the pole which Maniixaq had with him at all times did not have anything strange about it. However, father did say that Maniixauraq occasionally tied something, such as a wolverine strip, to the top end of the pole. He did this only on certain days. Another thing that was characteristic of him was that he kept the pole erected at all times. Father also quoted him as saying, "The one above who gives me words to say."
His Namesake, My Sister
Since the subject has been extensively covered by many of the speakers, I do not have too much to add. A point of interest, however, is that father named a daughter after his uncle. For some unknown reason, my parents' children who were born before us kept dying during infancy. Because of this, father named one girl after his uncle, Maniixaq. As a baby, she also became ill and almost died while they were in Kotzebue. Father went to seek help from Afaluksraq, who must not have been just an ordinary person. Afaluksraq performed his rites by sprinkling water on the baby or some such thing, and he caused her to live. Strangely enough, from then on the rest of their children lived, resulting in the lives we siblings have lived although our mother passed away while we were still young.
The Strange Land
According to father, Maniixauraq often said that he received his words from above. Another thing he said was that once he perceived a strange land. As I listened to what has been said on this subject, it seems that it was not mentioned. This is why I mention it now.
It is said that he saw a land that glowed with such radiance that it was too bright for the naked eye. He tried to recognize this strange land but he found that it was beyond his comprehension. The next best thing was to compose a song about it, which he did. He called the land which he saw Sixaavyagruavak, which was the closest word he could use to describe it, meaning that which has beautiful weather or sky. Father sang the song often but all I remember are just the following words: "Suami taamna Sixaavyagruavak?" meaning, "What then is that one, the sixaavyagruavak?" That is how he was said to have sung the song. It is said that he saw a land somewhere up yonder but he did not recognize or learn what it was. Since I did not hear anyone mention it, I have added it to the rest of the information.
What 'Maniixaq' Means
Another thing is the word maniilaq. He was often referred to as Maniixauraq. Lately, many people understand the word in reference to the word money. According to father, the word means 'that which does not have a smooth surface; that which has a rough surface or is precipitous.' It does not refer to the money we use today. Instead, Maniixaq refers to a rough surface. I do not know how he received his name but that was it. It may be it was because he was from above. That is how father explained the meaning of his name.
It is known that he was not afraid of anything. It is quite apparent that God used him as a connecting link to reach the people during the days of their ignorance of the Christian gospel.
Because he was a close relative of my ancestors, it seems that I had not given him enough credit for his significance. After listening to Elders who spoke about him with great respect, I am filled with gratitude. He did not do what he did by himself for he received his direction from God.
All his predictions have been steadily fulfilled. An example is the airplane which he referred to as 'that which travels through the air.' He said that it would appear from the east. I was at Shungnak when the first aircraft arrived. In fact, when it first arrived at Noorvik, I was there too. It came from up the river around the Koyukuk River. It may have been a Wien plane referred to as a Swallow. Just as he said, it appeared from the east. It also appeared from that direction at Noorvik. I realize now that it appeared as he said it would. As it turns out, that was how it was to be.
Interviewer: What about the rest of the things he predicted would come? Did they cover everything he mentioned such as the vehicles that would travel in the air and on the water, fire contained in the house, referring to the stove and other items in the house?
Yes. Actually, I cannot think of anything off hand. I simply did not pay enough attention to father as he spoke about Maniixaq when we lived out in the country. I had no idea this would be happening.
Interviewer: Didn't he say that people would do this and that because of all the conveniences they would someday have?
Yes, he did. All he predicted has come true.
The Consecutive Seasons
The two consecutive seasons, whether they be two summers or two winters, have not yet arrived. It would be a time of great hunger, a time of famine. I think that he added the time of famine in connection with the consecutive seasons.
The Large City
As for his predictions concerning Ambler becoming a great city, it is evident that this is coming true already. The village has already been established.
The spot where the whale is to surface is very deep. Once when we lived in Ambler as children, we passed it many times. It is so deep, it is like a pit, which makes it all the more probable for a whale to appear there. How it will get there is a different matter. It may be that it will even travel up the river during a flood or it may travel below the ground. Who knows! They just may be capable of doing that.
Interviewer: Well, anything is possible. It may be that an oil spill, which by the way is becoming an unavoidable occurrence, could force a whale to flee inland.
Yes. It is possible.
Anything is possible. As for the valuable mineral that is to be discovered, it seems that sometimes Jade Mountain even appears to be all green. However, it must be a different mineral. It is predicted that it will draw many people into Ambler, causing it to develop into a large city.
I was also delighted to hear about any possible descendents by adoption which he has in the north. I am now filled with curiosity about them. I even wish I could see them. It is a good thing to have relatives all over.
Elmer Imbusriq Ballot (English Translation)
Sivuniksranik Uqabikkafa Tikimagikput
Uvva Maniixamik uqaaqtuallafniaqtufa tusraajjapkun. Taimea Maniixaq uqautigirabigaat, sivuniksranik uqaqti, taatna sivuniksranik uqatlaniqsuaq taimani. Uqafa marra tikiumagikput.
Taamnagguuq Maniixaq ieuk taatna ieuuniaqtuaq. Taakma taagani Kuuvafmi ieuuniaqpalufniqsuaq, Maniixamik atilik. Sivuniksranik uqabaqtuq. Marra tikimagikput. Tamarragguuq uqafa taatnaixigisieipxugu, ieuich qabasrixutif ieuunialibisieipxugich.
Iknibbuuq puublugu, isiixaami, ieuich ieuuniuraalibisieipxugich uqaqhuni taamna Maniixaq.
Taragguuq uqabaluaqami, tamarra suli ieuitguuq sixakun iglibalibisirut, itnaqmanguuq tara ieuich arguaqtubabigaat. Arguaqtuqpagitxugugguuq iglautigiplugu, piixaanik uqabnipxugu pirabigaat. Itnatchieik takku nalukkafiteik uqaqhuni taimani. Sua manna qanusriuraq piieeaan, taimmagguuq taatna uqabaqtuq.
Uqabaqtubbuuq ieuich sixakun iglilibisieipxugich. Tamarra suli tifmisuutinik qieiliqsugut. Taimma tifmisuun sivulliq uqabikkafagguuq sixakunguuq iglarritqaabatabisirut Kuuvakun anisaaqtuamik. Taimma ifixbaan tusraagikput tifmisuun Kuuvakun anisaabnipxugu taaguuna. Tara tifmisuutmik ieuich tautunbaqtut. Taimma tara uqafagguuq. Kuuvakunguuq, kivaknam tufaanie sixakun ieufnik iglarribisieipxugich uqautigikkafa taavruma Maniixam. Taragguuq arguaqtuqpagitxugu iglautigikmatni qanutlaitchuq.
Umiam Iglibutaagun Uqafa
Ieuitguuq umiaqtubumif suli aquppiuraaqsieabutif tifilbautaixaat iglibisieipxugich uqaqhuni. Sunauvvauvva pakma umiaqtuqtuat, ipusrufaqatif taatna aquppiuraaqsieaqhutif igliliqsuat. Tara sunauvva uqafa suli.
Ukiumiyyuuq uvva qaufatmun, sixallieitmun tuttuliaqtuatigun ixau'ami, ilaagulli taatna igliburabaqtuq. Qanutun aglaatai una takitilaalik napaqsraq taimma usriababigaa taatna, aqpigitlaitchaa napaqsrani. Qipmibianbitmiruaq imma ami tara, qamuurabniaqhuni taimani. Tara qipmiukkabniqsut taatnaqamif, taimma qipmiqabaqtut taatna. Taragguuq igliqhutif nullaqamif, ilaagulli nullallakami, tamanna napaqsraq usriani nappababigaa tupqurabmi pianun.
Uqabaqtubbuuq tamanna Maniixaq sixami nanitai taataruaqhabnipxuni. Sua uvvatai piraqniqpauf taavruma Maniixam. Taamnagguuq Maniixaq afatkuunbitchuq. Afatkuitchuq. Afatkuunbieeiraqtubbuq.
Aglaagguuq taimani uqaaqtuutigikkafa tamarragguuq tikimagikput. Uvva pakma suitchuq, puggutauraiqsuq qiruvieauramik unnii tupqum ixua. Taatna Naluabmiutun ieuunialiqsiqsitkaatigut uvva Naluabmiut.
Taragguuq uvlut tallimat malbubuutaatni, tamannagguuq uvluq ieiqtuiqsiabviunipxugu, uvlumi taavrumani tara susrasrufaqani uvliuraabaqtuq. Ieiqtuiqsiabviurubbuuq taamna uvluq, itnagguuq uqaqhuni.
Taimani ieuich minbuiqsiq, una tatqiqsiutini minbuiqsiq nalugaat. "Tara taamna uvluq ieiqtuiqsiabvik tikitchuq," itnatlaitpalufniqsut imma taimani, takku nalugaat. Tatqiqsiutinik ieuich nalurut. Akunniqsaami uvani minbuiqsiuraajiq, minbuiqsiq nalugaat.
Naaggagguuq tara tamarra uvluq tikitman ieiqtuiqsiabviunipxugu uqaqhuni tallimat malbubuutaatni uvlut susrasrufaqaniyyuuq uvliuraalgitchaqtuq taamna Maniixaq. Sunauvva uvva minbuiqsiq pivalufnibaa. Tallimat malbubuutigigaat uvva takku akunniqsaami Savalliutmie aglaan taieufa Savaioibmun aglaan. Uvva taieufa taatna tallimat malbubuutigigaat. Uvva taatna ixisimavalulgieeibaa, ieufnun nalupmipchaqjugu, taatna ieiqtuiqsiabvifmik uqaqami.
Taragguuq suli aqabaqtuq, malbukuuttaaqjugu uvva tusraummiyiga uqakaafa.
Taitchagguuq Ivisaappaat ieufmik nayuqtaitmipchaqjugich, taichigua Ivisaappaat, kipchua Ivisaappaabmiut, taitchagguuq uqautaa tuvrallapiaqjugu nunaaqqibulgitchuq taikea.
Aasrii ieuich ixafich uqabaqtut uvuunagguuq Ivisaappaatigun abviq puisabumaruq, itna. Taimmagguuq abviq Ivisaappaatigun puifanikpan sixagguuq isrukjitkisiruq, itnagguuq uqabaqtuq. Ieuich ixafisa taatna uqaqtitababigaat.
Uvvali aasriie Patkuram tuquyasri'ami uqaaqtuutigikmauf tusraagigali. Tatqammagguuq Kuuvaum Kafiani, qapkua Laugvifmiut arguatni narvaq, nani aglaatai tatqamma, Kuuvaum aglaa kurgan qanifani ilimaruq. Qalugluktuamigguuq atiligaaq. Qamma pakma taamna Qalugluktuamik atilik tuppiuqlugu Naluabmiut, qamma tupqukkaqsivaliqsuq. Taavrumagguuq Maniixam uqautigirabigaa qamuunali Qalugluktuakun abviq puigisieipxugu, itnali Patkuram taimea Maniixaq uqaqtuanie tusraummivalukkaali tatqamuuna Qalugluktuakun abviq puigisieipxugu uqaqabnipxugu uqabaqtuq.
Uvva aasrii uqabaqtuq suli, taamnagguuq Qalugluktuaq afiruq, suli itirubbuuq. Imbumguuq ixuani napaaqtut taunna naparuat, napaaqtubraitchaat imbum ixuani taunna napaaqtuqpaabruich tautufnabaqnipxugich uqabaqtuq.
Napaaqtunik manieiqaqpaluktuq taamna Qalugluktuaq, quppafa taatna manieaaqjugruafuvaluktuq. Suli uvva ixaatnigguuq ukiumi ieuitguuq imma tikitchaqnibaat qafatai. Tatpapkuagguuq napaaqtut sikumik sikupkaqsimaniqsut taavruma Qalugluktuam ikpian napaaqtui. Sikupkallaksimarutguuq. Uvva aasriie ieuich uqabaqtutguuq sumguuq taimma sikupkabniqpagich tatpakkua ikpigaabruum qaafani, taavruma sieaani, sikumigguuq taatna puullafniqsut ikpigaabruum qaafani, taavruma sieaani, sikumigguuq taatna puullafniqsut tatpakkua. Kafiqsiebitchaatguuq sum taatna imiq tifipkaqjugu sikupkaqtilafa.
Taimaniyyuuq ifixbaan taamna narvaq mauna qitibuaqtuablugu qayaqtubnaixauvalufniqsuaq iqsieaqhuni, taimma qanutchieik afiruanik, afiruapianik qayyamik iisixiohieaanik qaluqaqpalufniqsuq taamna Qalugluktuamik taiyukkafat narvaq.
Aasrii qamma pakma tusraarababigiga Naluabmiutguuq nakitea tifmisuutinik imibmun mitxaruanik mitqataqjugu, tuppiuqjugu nunniuqhutif tatqamma, qapsieik imeatai qamma pakma tupinifnirabigaat Qalugluktuaq, ami uvva uvafa tautuksimaitchaluabiga tatqamna narvaq, taatna uqaqtuanik tusraaraqtufa.
Suligguuq makua afatkuuruat tuunbakun, tuunbabmik saffixgich, qanuqjugu ixitchubiniabaluababigaat, qanuqjugu ixisimapmafaan tamatkunifa, qanuqjugu taatna uqababipmafaan, ixitchubitlaitchaatguuq. Amillutiplugugguuq afatkuuruat saffiruat, tara ami afatkuuruat makua saffieiqtafisa tuqunniabalualgitchaat ieuusriagguuq paqitlaitchaat.
Tamatkuagguuq tara Ayaunibruablu, Tuuyublu tamatkua saffieiqsrat, afatkut saffieiqsrafich taatna afatkuuniaqunbitxugich itnalgitchabigai, taatna tarufa takkuatnun, uvva aquppiuraaqatini. Itnaqjugich, "Afatkuuniaqmieasri. Uvva iixiqatajhieaugipsi iisukkupsi." Tamatkua afatkut atmiksrublugich uqaaqtuyunaitmipchaqjugu.
Taapkuagguuq tara Ayaunibruablu, Tuuyublu taatnalgitmatik, taimma sullieibiifeiqpak ukuak. "Iixiqataqpatiguk amaqa sannibutauraksraqaqtuq, saunnitkisiruq?" itnautiplutigguuq uvva iglaqtuk uvva taapkuak afatkuuruak. Taragguuq afatkuuruanik unnii iqsitxaitchuq.
Taimeagguuq Maniixaq taatna kisimbaatchiaq, taatnagguuq ieuuniuraaqtuaq, ivrumifa iqsitxaitchuq taatna ieuuniuraaqami. Afatkuuruatguuq makua suqutnabiebitchai, iglautigiplugich piunbieeipxugich. Takkuatnunguuq taatnauraababigai.
Taimaniyyuuq tamatkua afatkuuruat iglautigilugich itna pisaayugautigilugich pisubnaitchut. Taatna afatkuuruat ixafich iqsieaqtut suli pisaayugautigisrubnaitchut. Pisaayugauraqtitifguuq itna utuqqabubatablugich ieuupkatlaitchaich. Taatna tuquttabigaich. Afatkuuruat taimani taatnali tuunbaq piupkabniaqjugu ieuuniaqtuat, saffirut uqautigipmatif.
Uvvagguuq maanixi afatkuuruavut taimma akjunaamik qufisiebagun qixiqjugu ieuich nuqittautrautigiplugu taatna sakuullapiaqhutif nuqittautrautigipmatni, qufisiebagun qixiqjugu, tallik amaqsipchaqjiik, akjunaamik qixiqsruqjugu ieuk, ixiqsrabumieaiqougu. Taatna pixbaaqjugu qufisiebagunguuq qixiqjugu ieuich nuqittautrautigirabigaat. Taragguuq nuqittautrautigipmatni tarani taamna qufisiebagun qixiqtaq, ieuich akjunaaq avataagun tiguplugu, sakuukhutif sakuugutigipmatni, tarani tuunbaum nayubugaaqmani uqqaabikhuni taatna, taugaaqiqsuaburaaqhuni taatna supluni, quqhiqhuni, uqqaabikhuni ieuuniuraabaqtuq.
Tara aasrii taatnaaqtubaluaqami qufisiebagun akjunaamik qixiqtaq, "Tara pitluksaqsaaqsirufa," itnababigaigguuq nuqittautraqtuat qufisieibmieik uumifa, qufisiebagun qixiqjugu, "Qimitchaat," itnagguuq taiyuutiqaqtuq taamna qimitchieipxugich taavrumifa.
Taragguuq pitluksaaqsieipxuni uqaqami ieuich taapkua qufisieba taamna mapkutitluni, taatna niaqua piksiksibaqtuq akjunaam kipliqjugu. Tara naaquiqsiqamitruf, imma iealufmik matuplugu pivalugaqnibaat, taamna ieuk taatnaqamitruf.
"Iealuk", itnababigaat ugruich aqiabufich, iealuafich imaiyaqjugich, puviqougich, paniqtat taimani sixaffaabiplugixxu tautkua imabmiut iealugiraqnikkafich. Killaiyaqjugich, atikjulipxugich taraamixi sixaluktitmanli tara imibmun abiyaitkutigiplugich tautkua piraqnikkafich. Itna uqiohaaq sivitlugu uvagut sigraaqaqmatun sixalufmun tapiyaikkusriqsuqmatunli uvagut, taatna killaiyauraqjugu piraqnibaat.
Uvva taatnatchieik iealufnik qavani ieuuniurabniaqapta igalburaqabaqtugut iealugauranik killaiyauraqjugich. Aanaa taatnatchieik igallirabigaatigut tupquraqniaqput saulik pichuuna qaafagun igalituaqaqtuq. Mauna sanibafagun igaliqatlaitchut saulgich.
Taatnatchimigguuq iealufmik matuplugu taatna nuqittautrautigikkaqtif niaqua piksiksiqman, tasramufa timaanun niaqua taamna kaimitibabigaat iealuuram ataanun. Naaquiqsibaat takku, tuqutibaat.
Taamnagguuq tara qimisaq taatna, taimma naniigutiplutif taabmi, tasramma iealuuram ataani itluni, afatkuullaksalgitchaqtuq tasramma, taimma iivifiulapluni, iihihiulapluni, afatkuulapluni.
Afatkuaqtuamik uvva uvafa tusraamarufa. Afatkuaqami ieuk ihihiulapluni, iivifiulapluni atuqhuni aqiutinik sunik atuqhuni, afatkuaqtuaq una, tuunbaum ieua. Afatkuuruaq taatna piraqniqsuaq.
Taatnaaqsiraqtubbuuq tasramma piani, taimma aasrii aquvitpaliqhuni uqqaabiaqsipman nanniutilgitxugu. Taragguuq iealuum ataani naaquniktilgitchaqtuq taamna qimitxugu naaquiqsikkafat. Taavruma iealuuram ataani, qanuqhunitai tasramma ami tuunbaumli taatna afalatlugu.
Taatnasrich uvva Maniixam taavruma suqutnabinbieeibai, iglautigiplugich piunbieeipxugich takkuatnunguuq taatnauraababigai. Mamiatlutifguuq tara ieuusria pakikkaluababigaat, paqitlaieeibaat.
(The following information was recorded in 1975 by lmbusriq himself. He worked as a researcher under the Mauneluk Cultural Heritage Program of 1975-1976.)
Elmer lmbusriq Ballot (English translation)
The Fulfillment of the Predictions
I am going to tell about Maniixaq just as I heard it. They often spoke of Maniixaq as a man who spoke of future events. In those days, he was able to predict the future. Much of what he predicted has now been fulfilled.
This man, Maniixaq, lived along the Kobuk River. He spoke of the future. Many of his predictions came true. He said that life would become easier to live. It would no longer be such a hard struggle simply to survive.
Maniixaq said someday fire would be contained and people would live with the absence of smoke in the house.
He said that people would even travel through the air. Hearing this, the people found it hard to believe him. In fact, so great was their disbelief that they laughed at him in ridicule and said that he was speaking nonsense. After all, in those days, he was attempting to describe things of which they had never heard. At the time he made his predictions, none of the material items we take for granted today were in existence.
He predicted that people would someday travel through the air and today we see the airplanes. He said that the first plane to come would travel down and out of the Kobuk River. Many years ago, we heard about the first plane ever seen by the people in this area and it reportedly travelled down the Kobuk. It happened as he said it would. Maniixaq had predicted that strange visitors would come from the east and travel down the Kobuk through the sky. Although the people laughed at him for talking about such seemingly impossible events to come, this did not affect him.
He predicted that people would travel in their boats simply by sitting, without the use of sails. Today we see people riding in boats simply by sitting, without even having to row. That was also one of his predictions.
It is said that when he travelled north with the other caribou hunters, he travelled by himself. It is said that he always carried a pole. It is most likely he did not have many dogs and probably towed his load. In those days, three or four dogs was considered a large dogteam. It is said that each time he settled down to camp, he erected his pole by his skin tent.
The Source of His Power
Maniixaq often said that he had a grandfather in the sky, exactly where I do not know. I do not know exactly what Maniixaq referred to. However, it is said that Maniixaq was not an afatkut. He did not have an ar)atkuq. or helping spirit. He, himself, said that he was not an afatkuq.
Yet his predictions have been fulfilled. It is quite evident today when our households do not contain even one single wooden dish. The Naluabmiut, or white people, have caused us to live like them.
The Day of Rest
It is said that Maniixaq rested every seventh day. "It is a day of rest," he said and that was what he did on that day.
In those days, people had never heard of a day of rest. They most likely did not say such things as, "The day of rest has arrived." Of course in those days, they did not even have calendars so they were not aware of a day of rest within a week.
In spite of this, it is said that Maniixaq rested true to his word, and did not do any work on the seventh day of every seven days. As it was, he must have rested on the Sabbath. After all, beginning with Monday, Sunday is the seventh day of each week. He must have known about it in spite of the rest of the people's ignorance of such matters in those days, which explains why he did rest.
As for another prediction which he made, I have heard two versions of it.
Before there was anyone living at the mouth of Ambler River where the village of Ambler is today, he predicted its eventual establishment.
According to what many people say, he predicted that a whale would someday surface near Ambler. After the appearance of the whale, he predicted that the world, as we know it, would come to an end. That is how some people tell it.
Another version I heard was one told by John Patkuraq Brown, who told it just before his death. He said that near the headwaters of the Kobuk River, further inland of the village of Kobuk, is a lake called Qalugxuktuaq (which is now called Walker Lake). From what I have heard, there are already some Naluabmiut who have built cabins along its shore. According to Patkuraq, who must have heard it from someone, he said that Maniixaq predicted that the whale would surface on that lake of Qalugxuktuaq.
He also said that Qalugxuktuaq Lake was large and deep. He said that large, tall spruce trees could even be seen standing in the waters of that lake.
It must be that there are also spruce trees surrounding the lake for he also said that one winter many years ago, exactly when I do not know, some people went there. There, high on a bluff of the lakeshore was ice on the trees. Something had apparently caused the water to splash to that great a height and it had frozen. He said that people often wondered what could have caused the water to splash on to the spruce trees that were high on a hill of the lakeshore and caused the ice to coat the trees. They never understood how this could have happened.
It is said that many many years ago Qalugxuktuaq Lake was not a safe lake to cross with a kayak. No one did it because it was considered dangerous. Apparently it had some kind of gigantic fish which were capable of swallowing a whole kayak. That is the story linked with that lake called Qalugxuktuaq, which literally means, 'that with too large fish.'
Today, I hear about the ever increasing numbers of Naluabmiut landing there in their float planes, building cabins, and settling there. I, for one, have never seen it myself, but I have heard those things about that lake in the interior.
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
The afatkut who received their powers from those below the surface of the earth heard him and wondered why he spoke the way he did. They attempted to find out about his source of knowledge, but it is said that they could not understand how he did it. Although the most powerful of the afatkut gathered together to kill him, they never found his spirit.
It is said that he actually discouraged Ayaunibruaq and Tuuyuq, who were two of the most powerful afatkut at that time. He told them not to practice being afatkut. He said this directly to them as they sat together, "You should not bother being afatkut. If I wanted to swallow you, I could easily do it." In those days, it was not a wise thing to talk down at the afatkut. (By saying this, he meant that his source of power was capable of eliminating that of the afatkut.)
I do not know what relation they were to each other but when Ayaunibruaq and Tuuyuq heard this, they laughed at him and said, "If he does attempt to swallow us, there will be something to block the passage and he will choke in his attempt. Isn't that right?" (By this reply, the afatkut planned to use his amulet to fight back with.) However, it is said that in spite of this reply, Maniixaq did not fear the afatkut.
Maniixaq was somewhat of a loner (although he did have a wife and a few children). He did not fear anything as he went about his daily activities. He did not fear the afatkut and actually laughed at them, for he had a very low opinion of them.
It is said that in those days, it was not a safe thing to ridicule the afatkut. Some of them were fearsome. They did not allow anyone who ridiculed them to live to an old age. They killed them. The afatkut in those days are said to have been quite powerful. They were very devoted to their helping spirits and defended them at any hint of insult.
As for our afatkut in this region, this is one way that one demonstrated his power. The afatkut was bound until he could no longer move. His hands were securely tied behind his back. Then the people tied a rope around the afatkut's neck and pulled the rope from both ends as hard as they could. It is said that when the helping spirit of the afatkut was within him and as the people pulled hard on the rope that was tied around his neck, the afatkut remained calm. He spoke to the people, puffed tobacco from a pipe and even coughed as they pulled the rope tighter and tighter around his neck.
Soon he said to the people pulling on the rope around his neck, "I am ready to go through with it." They've strangled him, was what they say when this is done. When he said that he was going to go through with it, his head snapped off with a loud pop and bounced onto the floor, having been severed by the rope. When this happened, his body was covered with a waterproof covering made of bearded seal gut which had been sewn together.
These bearded seal guts are called iealuk (or ifaluk) and they are first emptied, then air is blown into them and they are dried. The coastal people used them for raincoats or waterproof garments. They sewed the strips together and made them into waterproof parkas. They were also used much like a canvas tarp.
We grew up further up the Selawik River from where the village of Selawik is presently located. Mother sewed the bearded seal guts to make a window and this window was more like a skylight for it was located on top of the sod house in which we lived. In those days, the sod houses were dug half way into the ground and they did not have the windows on the sides.
It was with such a bearded seal gut covering that they covered the afatkuq after his head had been snapped off. They took the head and placed it by the body underneath the covering. After all, they had taken his head off and killed him.
The oil lamp was then extinguished and as they listened in the dark, the afatkuq was heard to chant his incantations as he summoned his helping spirit. He did all this from underneath the iealuk covering.
I, myself, have heard an afatkuq summon a spirit. The afatkuq sings and makes a quivering "ihihihihi" sound and sings aqiutit songs and things like that to summon the helping spirit (also called an afatkuq.) This is how this man of the spirits of the earth made his summon.
The afatkuq did this from underneath the iealuk covering and when it sounded as though he had sat up (with his head back intact), the oil lamp was lit again. It is said that the afatkuq mysteriously appeared with his head intact from under the covering. It is most likely that he was directed by the devil and that was how he was able to come back to life.
It was afatkut like that that Maniixaq was not afraid of although they were greatly feared by the people. They were the ones who set forth the taboos which the people lived by but Maniixaq demonstrated how powerless they actually were by breaking the taboos without any adverse consequences. He actually spoke directly to the afatkut about the fact that they were not as powerful as they appeared to be.