About the www.Alaskool.org project and its developers

Jim Crow in Alaska
Articles, photographs and more documenting
some of the history of racism in Alaska

Alaska State Library, Winter and Pond Collection, PCA 87-1050. NOT TO BE REPRODUCED WITHOUT PERMISSION FROM THE ALASKA STATE LIBRARY. Alaska Natives were legally prevented from establishing mining claims under the terms of the mining act. As this photograph indicates, there were other barriers preventing or discouraging Alaska Natives from participating in the establishment of the social and economic structures of modern Alaska.

New links: Who was Jim Crow and What were Jim Crow laws?
PBS has a new Jim Crow website to accompany a tv series

Listen to a personal narrative

"Aleut Internment" by Anatoly Lekanof

"Aleut Internment" is the recollections of an Aleut man on the forced relocation of his people by the U.S. Government during World War II. This story is available in RealAudio format and read by its author.

Readings

Racist sign triggers soul-searching at Juneau high school
FORUM:Hundreds meet to find solutions after student flashes derogatory sign.
(Published: February 7, 2004)

Articles and other material by and about Elizabeth Peratrovich and Roy Peratrovich

Abstract: This article describes the important role William Paul had in the securing of Native voting rights in Alaska. Haycox discusses the voters literacy law and cites inequities associated with its usage in other states in the US
Stephen Haycox "Desegregation In Alaska’s Schools: Alaska Yesterday"
Abstract: This article by Stephen Haycox outlines the historical problems of segregation in Alaskan schools. He explains the struggle towards integration.
Abstract: "The Beam in Thine Own Eye" is a first hand document of racial injustice and segregation in Alaska. A young Native girl living in Nome was the subject of extreme segregation and through her fighting back she brought the matter to the attention of the public.

Alaska "Molly Hootch" case Tobeluk vs. Lind

Abstract: Tobeluk vs. Lind is commonly known as the Molly Hootch class action suit. The eventual settlement allowed for rural Alaska Native communities to also have local high schools rather than being forced to send children to boarding schools.

"By One Spirit", an excerpt from the book

Abstract: A book by Karl A. Olsson, "By One Spirit", contains this interesting story about the Number Nine Mine and the battle of its ownership.

President Truman’s executive order to desegregate the military

Abstract: This executive order pressed the eventual desegregation of the United States military. In doing so it greatly expanded the opportunities of Asian-Americans, Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans in the services. It was also the one of the first major cracks in the wall of legal segregation at the Federal level. For Alaska Natives it meant new opportunities including more slots for training as N.C.O.'s and officers and a wider range of occupations in the military opening up. For the country as a whole it would have been an odd circumstance for Army airborne units, enforcing the integration of the schools in Little Rock, had they still been racially segregated units.
Abstract: Ernest Gruening was a key person in the fight to end segregation in Alaska. In this article Donn Liston highlights the life and accomplishments of Gruening and explains several issues Natives faced during his time.
Abstract: Extract from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, September 21, 1887. Included are policies such as mandatory use of English in all schools in under Bureau control and other policies affecting Native Americans, including Alaska Natives.
Photo of "All White Help" restaurant and various government documents

Abstract: A historic sight of a business which boasts having white employees only. Also included are articles and copies of government documents which outline the rights of Natives in Alaska during the last two centuries.

Photographs and documentation on racism in Alaska

Photographs of schools, students and faculty

Abstract: Archived photographs of the Native and non-Native schools in Juneau and Nome
1948 Covenant Restrictions
Abstract: This list of restrictions regarding property rights was drafted in 1948 for a subdivision called Airport Heights in Anchorage, Alaska. Included is an article which excludes all non-whites from owning property in the area, as with many others in Alaska.
1953 Warranty Deed
Abstract: Another deed which outlines property ownership and dwelling rights in Alaska. This Warranty Deed applies to a tract in the Turnagain Heights Subdivision and article 5 clearly declines any ownership or dwelling to those non-whites except in the case of servants employed by the owners.
Mining Act of 1872
Abstract: The Act passed by the U.S. Forty-Second Congress in May of 1872 outlines the rules and regulation involved with land and load claims. In Section 1 it is stated that only U.S. citizens may claim land and loads, excluding Natives from their own properties.
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