...Back To Maniixaq (1)
Suzie Anibniq Stocking (English Translation)
Naami uuva ixisimmaabipiabatablugu piebitmigiga. Taimma ieugubniabvifma uqajhatitun uqaqsimagaluaqtufa taimma.Tara uqaaqtuutigigaluababigaat, uvafa kafiqsieiuratlaitchiga. Taatna tamarra uqaaqtuutai uqautigikkafi Maniixauram, taimma tusraamagisri. Imma ieuum uuyusrukkumigich uuyurababniabnibai. Sunauvva uvafa kafiqsimmaabiitchufa. Uvva tusratlaitxufa kafiqsitxaitxufa uqaqapsi, uvani iluqaan uqautri kafiqsitxaitchiga, tusraatlaitchiga.
Maniixam ixitqusria apai takiruatun itpagitxuni. Tamarra aglaan uqautaa marra tikiumaruq. Aglibnaiqmiuq, supmiuq. Taatna tamarra uqautaa Maniixam tikiumaruq. Marra taimma aglaan ixafa uqautaa Maniixam imma suli tikiumanbitchuq. Taipchuak tusraakkavut ukiuk malbuuk uuyulibiiksraak, uvva tikiumanbitchivut suli. Tamarra Maniixauram uqautai.
Uqautaa iluqaan uqautiginabumieaitchuq ifmik itnasriuruni. Uvva uvafa tautukkaluabipsitfa, utuqqautlukjufa ilipsiteie. Naaggauvva ilipsitnie nalutlukkiga uqautigikkaqsi qanusripayaaq. Kafiqsimaitchiga. Ieufni piuratlaitpagitxufa. Afayuqaakalu ukuak uqqaabiuratlaitchuk, uqautigiuratlaitchaak sua. Aanaa aglaan uvva. Tara uqaaqtuutigikmagu uvani uqaqaqtiqaqami tara uqautigigaluababigaa.
Uvva qafaimea uqabniaqama qamani, uyubutchiaba isiqman Tulugaq pigaluabiga, "Uvva taatna pigaluaqtufa," itnaqjugu. Taragguuq, afayuqaakkieguuq uvva taatna uqaaqtuutigikmirabigaak. Ifmiknunguuq uvani uqaaqtuqamik, taatna uqaaqtuutigikmirabigaak afayuqaakkie, taataruakkie. Taimma tape-aqman ixigiga taatnaqmafa. Tara uqabaluaqtuqtuq, tusratlaixgitxugu kafiqsimmaabiksiebixgisaba. Uvafauuva supayaakun iximananbitchufa. Taatna ieujhieaq liilaa ittufa. Alapifaluqjufa taatna kafiqsitxaitxufa. Uvva unnuaq uqabvigikmatfa uvlaakunguuq Maniixaurriqiniaqtut, itnaqmatfa, "Taimma uqautiksralgich Maniixaurakun uqabisieiqsut," itnaqtufa. "Uvafa naalaktuaburaabisieiqsufa," itnaqtufa.
Uvva qanuq ieuuniaqtilaapiafa Maniixauram tamarra uqautigigaat. Uqaaqtuutigirabigaat taatnajhaieaq. Ieuum uqautigiaqsi'amiuf taatna aasrii uqaaqtuutigiaqsixgitchabigaa.
Aglibnaitchuq. "Sumik maatna agliqsrauranbitchuq," ieuich itnaqmata, alakkaapiaq ieuuniajhat taipchua. Susrallafnabnianbitchuq aurabmi. Qaluktubniurabniaqsaqamif makunifa ixiqnibnik, sunik qanutchieik, nukiohaanik unniie qatiqtaanik, pieianbitchut.
Ieugubniabvitkali uvafa ixitchubikkatka tamarra aglibnaqtuq. Nuna manna naagga uvva Maniixam uqautigi'amiuf, aglibnaixxapiaqjugu sua iluqaan imea, taatna uqautigimagaa uqaqmata. Tamarra marra Maniixauram uqautaa, uqajha marra tikiumaruq. Marra tikiumagikput uvagut. Aglibnaitchuq, suitchuq. Sumik puuyuqtut ieuich. Suruat aalburuat, suruat aglinbaqtuat nalunaqtut taatna. Ibeiruat tamarra tupibni ibeiuqtuaqtut.
Ixafa Uqautaa Tikiumaitchuq
Tamarra Maniixauram uqautaa. Ixafa taimma tikiumaitchuq. Ixafa uvva tikitkisiruq. Taimma kieulliich ieuuniabaluaqpata tikitkisiruq. Tikiebieeianbitchuq. Taivruma nunamik ixitqusriksrafanik sixam, uqaqtuam uqautigianiksimagaa.
Tara napaqsraq taamna ittubbuuq ataramik. Iniqapayaaqman napaqsraq taamna ittuq.
Ixai uvva uvafa ixisimagaluabitka, tusraamagaluabitka, ixapiafi, aniqatiufi aglaan uvva nalugitka. Tara qitunbai unnii. Ieugiaktaanik qitunbaqanbitpaluktuq, suvatai. Uvva pieasrut aglaa. Uqquutablu, Itluunlu, aglaan uvva kimik paniqaqtilaafa pitchaga. Taimma paniqabuknabaluaqtuq. "Paniqaqjugu uqautigisruknabaluababigaat," itnaqtuami uumaabma qaaglaan imea uqabvigillakkaafa. "Immagguuq Piqukpafmik paniqaqjugu uqautigirabikkafat," itnabaafa. Tara tusraamagaluakkaba paniqabnipxugu. Uvafa alapilgitxugu. Uumaamnun piruami, uqallaktuami taatna, nuti uqautigigaa.
Subaabrufmik uvva Manixaurriqiyumieaitmiufa. Taimma uqaaniksimaplufa tape-pamun.
(The discussion of Maniixaq by the following group of Elders Maniixaq was recorded in January, 1978, at a NANA Elders' Conference in a session conducted by researcher and Elders' Conference organizer Rachel Savibummuaq Craig. It has been transcribed and translated into English the very same way it was recorded. No attempt was ever made to edit the material into any particular sequence. Subtitles are given only for convenience in identifying who said what.)
Susie Anibniq Stocking (English translation)
I, too, do not know that much about Maniixaq. However, once I did relate (into a tape recorder) the same information handed down to me by the ones who raised me. I told it as they did.
Although people did speak of him and told stories about him, I did not try to understand the whole story. You Elders have all heard of Maniixaq's predictions. Whoever wants to participate in this discussion and add on any other information may do so. As it was, I did not easily comprehend everything. Because of this, I do not hear or understand the discussions in this meeting very well.
It seems that there is so much to tell about Maniixaq. It is obvious that his predictions were fulfilled for they have come to pass. There are no more taboos or any such things to adhere to. It is just as he predicted. However, some are not yet fulfilled. Maniixauraq predicted that some day, there would be two consecutive seasons which we have not yet experienced. (Most often they are referred to as a year of one winter followed by another winter.)
Being a person of such a state of mind as I am today, it seems quite impossible to tell all that he predicted. You all can see that I am older than many of you. Still, it seems that I know less than you whenever there is a discussion. I suppose this is because I was not one to mingle among people, I do not understand everything fully. Another factor was that my parents, being people of few words, did not tell me about such things. However, my mother occasionally did speak about him whenever she had someone to speak to.
Not too long ago, my niece Tulugaq (Faith Moyer) came in and I told her what little information I knew. She replied that her parents also said the same things about him. She said that is how her parents told it to each other, including her grandparents. Tulugaq told about what she knew, but I did not understand everything because I had difficulty hearing. You see, I do not know everything. It seems that I am merely an ordinary person. Because of my forgetfulness, I don't understand everything. Last night, when they told me that Maniixauraq was to be the topic of discussion today, I said, "It appears that those who have anything to say about Maniixauraq should speak. As for me, I will listen."
They have told about how Maniixauraq really lived. That is how it has always been told. Each time someone started to tell about him, it was always the same story. (Here are a few, examples:)
The Old Taboos Will Be Forgotten
People no longer adhere to the old taboos. "He did not believe in the taboos of his day," whenever people make this statement, it refers to the fearful life that the people led in those days. One was barely able to do as he pleased during the summer. Whenever the people started to fish, and of course in those days it was hard work just to fish, they were never allowed to handle caribou hides and later on, even white canvas cloth, which was introduced by the Westerners quite early, was not to be handled.
As I was growing up, I remember that there were many taboos. According to what people said about him, Maniixauraq predicted that all those taboos would disappear. Now, we can see that Maniixauraq's predictions have been fulfilled. We, ourselves, have lived through the changes and have seen his words come true. I have lived to quite an old age and from my own personal experience, I have seen it happen. I know that they are fulfilled. None of the old taboos exist, not even one. People are no longer aware of many things. It is no longer so obvious when girls have their menstruation periods or reach puberty and experience the changes of womanhood. It is now an accepted practice for mothers to give birth in the homes.
This has all happened just as Maniixauraq said it would. However, some of it has not occurred yet. The rest is sure to come. As the last generations live their lives, the rest will come. It will not fail to be fulfilled. The one who told about the future of the world has already predicted it.
Another thing is the fact that it is said that a pole was always there wherever Maniixaq was. (In other words, Maniixauraq is always remembered as having had a pole with him.) It was always there.
I have heard about his relatives and knew them. However, I do not know the actual names of his siblings or close relatives. He must not have had many children. As far as I know, there were three. There was Uqquutaq and Itluun, but I am not sure who the third was, but I think that he did have a daughter. Not long ago I said, "I think that they do say he had a daughter," to my friend and she answered, "They say that he had a daughter named Piqukpak." I had heard that he had a daughter but I have forgotten her name. When I mentioned it to my female friend, that was the information she gave me.
I cannot tell too much more on the subject of Maniixauraq because I have already spoken once into a tape recorder.
Charlie Qieuban Lee (English Translation)
Uvva tusraamakkabaptuuq uuma abnabraitchiabma uqautigigaa. Manna taimani nunakun saffixgich iqsieautigikkafat paaqsaabnaitxugu, Maniixauram taavruma talubinbitchaa. Iqsiginbieeibaa. Tamatkua unniie ilifisa nunakun saffixgich pakikkaluabaqnibaat irrusria tuqutchukjugu, paqitlaieeibaat.Ixumun uqautigigaa. Tamanna manna abnat avani ibeiuqtuabutaat itrimi, qanutchimi nafinnami, ixaalugruaqaqsaqami uvakfa tupibmie anirabautaat, tamarra uqautigigaa taatniinbibisieipxugugguuq. Uvva aasrii pakma ixumutuuruq. Iluqani nuna manna aglibikkafa pakma uvva agaayyutim simmiqsitkaa. Tamanna taatnasriq qieibuknabnibaa.
IivaqsaatUvva naukunliqaa pitaaqtuallagluguli uqaksrakipiaqtufa. Tara iivaqsaanik uqabaqniqsuabbuuq. Sixakun igliqtuanik, iknibmik iglibutilifnik. Tamarra qieibivut uvluvak iivaqsaaliqutai.
Uvva naukunliqaaqtuallaglugu tusraallaakkaba, uvva ixisimaurabaluakkaba, aippaani taimma timiga una pirraqjukman, isrummatiga ixaffaqtiqsimaruq. Sagluuqtuabisuknaqtufa uvva.
NapaqsraqTatkivva ukua Kuuvafmiut nalbuniqsraurafata iivvafani, Ixuvauranik nuna atiqaqtuq, ixuviqaqhuni. Taipchua taimani ixuviqsiohat, makua napaaqtut kiggat qaafatnunlu, ieufnik ixisixxaaplutif isrimarut. Afukkatkali tamarra tatkivani.
Uvva, katpiafmi qieikkaba, ieuum imma uqautigaluabaafa, ieuk taimea puuyubiga, itqapayaaqapku taimma ieufmun uqabvigipkaqjufa isrumaga itkaluaqtuq, ieuk taimea taiyumieaibiga. Taatna cut bank sabvam, sikum upinbaksrapayaaqman imma qanu taatna nufutlugu napaqsram kafia tautuksimakkaba. Three feet, four feet-qanuqtai taatna samufa napaaqtuvieiq inniqsuaq. Tamauna aasrii, taimma takku aupluni, ulbuvaluktuq. Aglaan uvva mumibnamik piitchuq. Tara kaimitausruknaqtuq taamna. Uumauvva uqautigigaa, nani itchaqami napaqsraqatlanipxugu. Taamnali uvva qieikkaba taimma itqaqsapayaaqapku ieuum imma uqautigaluabaafa, ieuk taiyumieaiqougu ittufa.
ApiqpauraqtuksraqUvva suli napaaqtut nuvukkafich nallibxugich apigisieipxugu uqaqtitababigaat. Tamarra uqautigigai. Uuyulibiiksraaglu uqautigiraqnikkak. Uvva taamna uqautaumalgitchuq taatna. Apiqpaurabisieipxugu makua napaaqtut nallibxugich apigisieipxugu. Uvva ifixbaan nunavut immiqsilaafa qafaaglaatai nalugaluabiga. Aglaan uvva pisruktuni, pisrutlauraffabmali ixafani maani iebich akuafitei, qanutchimi nunami, qimibaami sumi, napaaqtut tiprat ittaqtut. Tamarra auyugaqhutif tamaani taimma ixaatni. Imaqaqsimaruq sutiguvaktai.
Nunaaqqiqpauraksrablu Suli Abviq Puiruksraq
Uvva suli Ambler-kun uumuuna, uqautaa tatkimea nunaaqqibubisieipxugu. Tasramma tamaakfa nunamie paqitaksraq paqitpan, taimma nunaaqqibubisieipxugu uqaqtitababigaat. Taatnaqqaaqhuni aasriie, abviq taruuna puigisieipxugu. Suli apai tabiuq ufasriksublu sutiguntai iglibuni puigisiva. Aglaan ieugiaktaat taamna uqautigirabigaat.
Tamarra uqautai. Uvafa ieufnie tusraallaakkatka itqaummiyumieaitchitka. Uvva mikiyuurajhieamigli uqallaksabumaruami. Uvva suli qafaimea maufaqsabaluaqnafa, aakauraba apibillakapku, Sanmibana, tara Sisualifmi taichani itnami napaqsraqaqsimalgitchuq suli. Uvva aasriigguuq ieuuniabaluaqami uqalgitchaqtuq taimma uvluq atausriq aglibigisieipxugu. Ilaan savagvigiyumieaieeipxugu. Ittuabijhieeipxuni taamna uvluq tikitpan. Uvva aasrii tikitman, tasramma napaqsrabmieunguuq naktitchixxagaqtuq. Taimma sumik taimma nalunaitmiutaqauraqpalugaqtuq. Naktitchixxaqqaaqhuni, taamna uvluq tikitman, uqautigikkani savakkumieaieeipxuni, ilaan savagvigiyumieaieeipxugu ittuabisieipxuni, taammagguuq aqautni tuvraqjugu ieuksruitchaqtuq. Nalaraqtuq taamma taamani. Uvva kivruma Abnaqie uqautigikkafa maamani taatna uqaqtitallakkaa. Uvvagguuq sunauvva Sunday taamna miksraaqjugu taamna ittuabviqabaqniqsuq. Taatna aglibigisieipxugu uqautigirabigaa. Taragguuq sunauvva Sunday miksraaqjugu, ittuabaqniqsuq.
Tuvaaqataa NutqaqmanTaakma taichani aakaurabma uqaqami, tuvaaqataiqsimaruq Sisualifmi. Tuvaaqataa nutqaqsimaruq. Naaqaa mumiksitlugu uvafa uqalgitpik.
Sixatmun AullaqmanUvvaasrii uqautigigaa Kuuvafmie aullaqsaqami, Ivisaappaat uqquatni tamanna Tunuuramieguuq, taimma taipchua nunaaqqiuram uqquani, qikiqtam tunuani kurguraq Tunuuramik pirabigaat, tarakfagguuq tara tasramma sixatmun aullaqami utitqiebitchuq. Taimma napmuntai timikuva.
NapaqsrafaUvvaasrii ibeifa Uuhaubbuuq (Uqquutabbuuq?) taimmali aqpigieeiqsuabbuuq taimma ieuk, itnallaqqaaqhuni Sanmiban uqautigigaa. Napaaqtuvieibmigguuq taatna aullatraqabaqniqsuq ataramik Maniixaq. Iglau'ami taimma tamarra manna kaligigaa. Taatna saagabiraqnibaa ataramik. Uqaqhuni taimma nunamun napmun timikuyumi tamarragguuq napaqsraksrafali ilaan ixuvban. Nalufaitmiutaksrafa taimmagguuq tatkivakfa aullaqami taimma kaligiplugu aullaqami napmunligguuq taimma timikuva. Taimmagguuq aglaan napaqsraksrautni iglibutigaa ataratchaamik. Unitxaitchaa, "puuq" amiuvva taiyaa Sanmibam.
Unauvva Maniixatkut Joe Sun kivva kieuviabipiaqsimagaat. Paapafa taipchunani ixauruq. Tatkivva Joe Sun kieuviabillapiabaa taivruma Maniixam.
Marragguuq makua nunakun saffixgich talubnaqtaat, ami tara paaqsaallaayunaixat taimani, talubinbipiabnipxugich ilaan iixibukkumigich iixibayabnipxugich, tarufa takkuatnun, taatnaqutlaipiaqtuat ami, tara tarufa taatnababigai. Taatnaqmatif uvva aasrii tara siumatchakamif, takku taatnayunaitxutif, pakikkaluababigaat irrusria paqitlaitchaat. Taatna aasrii iqsisaitxuni. Sumik iqsisaipiaqtuq. Taatna uqaqami, uqautaa nalautluni igliqtuafupluni.
Uqautaa Suli ImmiqsuksraqTaatnali kafiqsimagigali uvva, aanamnie sumnie tusraamalugu piebitchaluabiga. Taimma utuqqanaat nani katillakhutif uqaqmata taatniipiaqtuq. Uqautaat marra tikitxugu uvva qapsiunbibuknaqtuq. Taimma uqautai immiqsuksrauyumif, taimma immiqsuksraugijhitchut, Agaayyutim taatna ittinniaqpatif. Taamna sivuniksriqirigiplugu uvva itabikkafa. Marrumuunali killutnamun ixafa saffiginiaqjugu itkaluaqpalufnibaat, aglaan taatna agaayyutim sivuniksramik, tikitchuksramik uqaqtaqtigivalibaa taamna ieuk. Iqsisaitchuq qanutchimi unnii aulaalukami, su'ami iqsisaitchuq. Taatnaasrii uqautipayaafa tikiumapluni. Taimma taatniinniaqpan apun manna ieugiakkisiruq ixaatni.
Suli taamna kivva Ambler aullabniigaluaqtuq. Taimma immiqsuksrauyumi, maakfa nunamie paqitauluni qanusriq, nunaaqqiksrabuutiqpauluni itchumi, taimma paqitaugisivalulgitchuq. Taimma iyabak napaugaqtuaq qanusriq imea taimma uqautauruaq. Tatkivani ieuum atautchim kayuqtumik tuvraqhuni tikixxaksimagaluabaa. Tatkivrumaptuuq afayuqaaqpagitxuni itqatlaiqsimagaa. Atlauniqsuaq iyabak kayuqtum taavruma tikiutillafnikkafa. Taimma taatnatchikun nappaqtuksrauyumi Ivisaappaat aullabniifanikkaluaqtuq. Kamanaqsixaaqtuksrauyumi, tatqamma kamanaqsixaabuni nappabisiruq. Iluqani uqautaa immiqsuksrauyumi, taimma suli abviq puixuni tatkivuuna pigisiruq.
Taimma ieugiaktaaq uqaun itkaluaqtuq samma makua ixisimatluurabaluaqpalukkaat. Tarufa aglaanli uvva uqaaqtullaguknaqtufa Maniixakun. Tusraakkaba, tusrallaakkaba nalautchaabablugu uqabniabuma, saglutlukkisirufa. Samma saglugaluaqpaluktufa saglusruglufa aglaan isrummatigigaluaqnagu, kinniqinibuma, natqiksruusrimaallafniabisigipsitfa. Taimma itqaqtibnibupku sua qapsich taisaafurat aquvillakkisivaluktufa suli. Tarufa aglaan uqallaktufa. Taimma Charlie-m unniie uuma qanuq maamamieie tusraaviqaqhuni uvafaasrii aanajhieamnik uumifa ieugubviqaqjufa. Taatamnik unniie qieiqsimaitxufa, mikijhamnie. Taimma sua tusraafurabaluakkabaptuuq taimma aippaani pirraqjukama una isrummatiga ixaffaqhuni. Tara tarufa aglaan uqallaktufa.
Charlie Qixuban Lee (English translation)
My aunt has told about what I, too, have heard. Maniixauraq did not respect nor fear the power and rules of those who derived their powers from the earth. Because they wanted to kill him, the ones who received their source of power from the earth searched for his soul but they could never find it.
She (referring to Susie) has told the facts about him. It is as she said. She said that it was predicted that there would come a time when mothers would no longer be forced to give birth away from home, in the cold and harsh environment. This is evident today. God has changed everything that the rules of the earth forced on the people. This is what he (Maniixauraq) must have envisioned.
I do not have much to say so I will poke a few holes here and there (so to speak). He spoke of the iivvaqsaat who travelled through the sky on vehicles which were run by fire. Today, we see those whom he referred to as the iivvaqsaat.
I am attempting to tell what I do know in a rather haphazard manner. I have heard about Maniixaq, but many years ago when something bad happened to my body, a part of my thought processes seemed to have been removed. It is possible that I may not even tell the facts. (Here he refers to his stroke.)
Up the river where the Kobuk people live is a place called lxuvaurat. It is located on a bend of a long stretch of the river. The early Ieupiat did not bury their dead people. Instead, they laid them on the ground and erected poles on top of the body. Sometimes they simply laid the body on top of some tree stumps. I, myself, have seen this in my lifetime.
Once I saw something on what I refer to as a 'cut bank,' meaning a river bank which has been eroded by ice and the strong current of spring break up. Every time I think of this, I distinctly remember someone telling me something about it, but I can never remember who the person was. I have reached a stage where I can no longer cite names of people. Anyway, once I saw a spot where a pole had obviously been erected on the ground. Because of the erosion on this cut bank, I saw the bottom end of the pole. This pole was implanted three or four feet deep in the ground. It had fallen down because it was so old, but when I inspected the bottom end which had appeared on the eroded bank, I noticed that it did not have a trunk. It seems to me that it had been erected on the ground. Well, she (Susie) said that he always carried a pole. Everytime I think of what I saw, I remember his pole and I also remember someone telling me something in relation to it, but I cannot remember who or what.
The Big Snow
They also say that he predicted that some day it would snow so much that the snow would reach the tree tops. He also predicted the two consecutive seasons that we would experience. This has also been told. It is said that it would snow so much that the level of the snow would reach the tree tops. I do not know of any floods in our country's history, but upon hiking, in the days when I was able to hike long distances, sometimes I noticed driftwood along the slopes of the mountains and along the ridges. Sometimes they appeared to be rotting on the ground. This indicates that at one time there was water at those high levels.
The Large City and the Whale
He also spoke of Ambler. He said that Ambler would come into existence. He predicted that if something was discovered from the ground, Ambler would become a city. His words have been told repeatedly. After that, he predicted that a whale would surface near Ambler. It is a fact that the ocean is quite far from Ambler so I wonder how the whale will travel to Ambler and appear there. However, this has been told repeatedly by many.
Those are some of the things that I heard from various people over the years. I cannot remember everything.
The Day of Rest
I had planned to speak only briefly but another thing is that before I came here, I spoke to my 'older sister' Sanmiban (Flora Cleveland) and found out that he also had his pole when he was living across there at Sisualik. It is said that as life went on for him, he told the people that he had reverence for one day. He said that he would not work and would simply rest on that certain day. Well, when the day came, he was reported to have hung something on the end of his pole. By attaching something to the end of his pole, this was probably how he showed the people that the day had arrived. After attaching the thing to the pole on the day he said he would rest and not work, that is just what he did. He simply rested. This is what Cora Gray said as she relayed her mother's words. As it turned out, somehow he knew it was Sunday (although there were no calendars) and it was then that he rested and told the people he held that day in reverence.
The Death of His Wife
According to the words of my 'older sister,' he lost his wife across there at Sisualik. That is where his wife's life ended. For all I know, I may have the facts turned around.
The Departure to the North
Another thing is that he was last seen heading north from Tunnuuraq. Tunnuuraq is a small river behind an island, just below Ambler. He left from there and never returned. I do not know where his body lies at rest.
It is also said that his son was a man of patience. He was said to aqpigit-, meaning not to be one who ever wants to be rid of anyone. After describing him in that manner, Sanmiban said that it was characteristic of Maniixauraq to carry a pole all the time. He took it with him everywhere he went. Everywhere he travelled, he always dragged the pole along. It is said Maniixaq told them that wherever he left his body behind, the pole would be his grave marker. Once again, as he left from Tunnuuraq, no one knows where he 'left his body.' However, it must be said that he carried his pole everywhere he travelled. Sanmiban referred to the pole as his 'puuq,' in an attempt to say pole.
Joe Sun is a close relative of Maniixauraq. His father was one of Maniixaq 's close relatives in those days.
Maniilaq and the Afatkut
Maniixauraq was not one to fear the ones who received their powers from the nuna (meaning earth, land, ground, country.) They were the ones of this world. He was so courageous that he actually told them that if he so desired, he was actually capable of swallowing them (destroying them). This he said directly to them, which in those days was considered an outrageous thing to do because it was dangerously fatal. The afatkut were the rulers and it was never wise to disobey them and they never tolerated anyone who spoke to them with disrespect. They reacted with such rage that they searched for his soul but they could never find it. This is why Maniixauraq was so courageous. Nothing frightened him for whatever he said was the truth.
That is how I understood him to have been. Although I did not hear anything from my mother or any of my relatives, I have heard the same words repeated whenever a group of elderly people meet. All the predictions have now been fulfilled except for a few. If the rest are to come true, it will be so if God wills it. Maniixauraq was his prophet. Although the people in those days often regarded him as receiving his powers from this world, it is most likely that he was a prophet of God and he spoke of future events for Him. He was a brave man everywhere he travelled. Nothing frightened him. Everything he said has come true. If it is to be so, some day there will be much snow.
Also, although Ambler has been established, if it is to be so that something valuable will be found from the ground to perpetuate the growth of Ambler into a large city, it is probably that something shall be found. The mineral that is mentioned was once seen by a person tracking a fox. That person is so old now, he cannot remember the exact location. The fox had led him into a place where he had sighted a strange stone. Although the village of Ambler has been established, if it is destined to become a great city because of the discovery, it shall be so.
If everything he predicted is to be fulfilled, a large whale will also appear there. Although there is much to be said, maybe there are others here who are a bit more familiar with the subject. I think that is as much as I will speak about Maniixauraq. If I try to stab at remembering all that I have heard, I am afraid that it may come out wrong. As for what I have just related, it may be that I have twisted the facts but it was purely unintentional and I would ask that I be forgiven if I have indeed done so. In the event that I do remember anything else, even if its worth just a few words, it is probable that I shall sit again (referring to the chair where the tape recorder microphone was.)
That is as far as I shall speak. Charlie here heard from his mother and as for me, I grew up with only my mother. I never saw my father. Because of what happened to me, my memory was affected so that I cannot recall everything that I once heard. This is as far as I shall speak.
Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English Translation)
Uvva taamna uqautiksraqput qabanabuni inbitchuq. Uvva kafiqsisuktuat ukua taivruma Maniixauram taimmali maani itnami ieuuniajhanik uqajhat una taimma tusraamagikput. Taimma nunam, unniie nunaaqqim, unniie atlam tusraamaplugu.
Uvvali aanagalu Qakiblu uqaaqtubaqtuk taavrumifa Maniixauramik. Uvva aullabvia tusraagiksi samma. Taapkunakfa, Imbusriq taixxakmagu akku uvani uqaqtuam, tasramma uvakfa Qalamiunie aullaqsimaruq. Uvva aasriie unali uqautigillagukkiga. Aanaali Qakibumlu, afatchiabma uuma, uqaaqtuutaak. Ixisimmabikougu tautukjugu Maniixauraq uqautigirabigaak. Tautukjugu, tara aglaan afimaitchuknaqtuk. Taimma ieeatluurabaluaq, aglaan ixisimagaat utuqqauruat.
Uvva aasriie Maniixauraq una uqautigirabigaa aanaa. Uvvagguuq ieuuniabniqsuq tatqamani Kuuvaum Kafiabmiuni. Uvva aasriie uqabaqtugguuq taimma uqabviksrani tikitman. Itna ieuguutigalugu uqaqsimaitchuknaqtuq. Tasramma uqabviksranixi aggiqman, uqaksrabmieik taluqsrautaiqhunigguuq uqaqtuq.
Uvva ixaqatniktilaafa ixaqatnitqiksimanbitchumi, Sixallieibmiumik tuvaaqatiqaqjugu, naaggaqaa tatqaufaqami ixaqatnitqikpa. (Atautchimiohieaq Sixallieibmiumik ixaqatniguknaqsimaruq).
Maniixablu Afatkulla: Piixaq, Ayauniq
Sapnauraqtut ieuich makua uuma ikaabniajhanik Imabruum. Tara ataaqamigguuq, Kuuvafmi tasramma tamaani kuufmi, tikiteamigich ieuich uqautinibai, uvvagguuq ilaanli saffimieik uqabvia tikiumaruq. Afatkutguuq makua saffiatnik saffiqanbitchuq. Aglaanguuq nalukkafatnigli saffiqaqtuq.
Uvvagguuq pakmakfa saffiqaqtuq, afatkutguuq aasrii manna kamanautaat, Piixamik taisixxakhuni, "Piixablu iieiabikpuk. Iiguptikku aglibnaq manna atuumatqikkumieaitchuq. Kamagigaluakkasri makua saffiat piibeiaqtuq. Iieiabikpuk Piixablu."
Piixaq una Siixivifmiu. Afatkubikkafatli tautujibmikni Maniixaurakun. Uumuuna saffia afatkut saffiatnik saffiqanbieeiqsubli una Piixaq. Taavruma uqautigigaa paatnafan. Itnabniqsuq, "Piixablu iieiabivuk uvva." Aasriie tautuktinniabaigguuq, uumifa "Freedom" ieuich pioiksrafat. Aglibnaqtuaq manna, ibeirabajhat unniie nunaaqqim kiluani atuumatqikkumieaibisirugguuq.
Ilaan iieiabaak Piixamlu ikayuqtigiiksillutik, itnaqmanguuq afatkuqpaich ixafat tusraamagaat utuqqauruat, Ayaunibruaq, Siixivifmiu. Tara iqsigikkafat, ieuich talubikkafat. Taatna taatnali saffianik qieiqtaqhutif, tautukhutif taatnabnibaa uvanigguuq Qikiqtabrufmi.
Afatkuqpafich taimma afatkuumarut. Ukua Qikiqtabrufmiuttuuq taatna nunaaqqisuntuuq atlatun marrumifali aglibnamik saffixgich, paaqsaabnaixamik. Taimma tamatkuali saffiat. Ieufmik ijuaqsiriiteitlakmipxutiflu tamatkua afatkuqpaich. Taimma malibuaqtaksritchabigaat taatna naaraksrafanik, asriaqtubnaixaqtabuqtaqhutif unniie. Naaggaqaa masrutubnaixabuqtaqhutif. Taimma one year-mi, atautchimi ukiumi, sumitai paaqsaatuaqamiuf, taamna ieuk, taavruma afatkuqpaum paaqsaabutaanik atutuaqami, taimma atnibeamik atitlapluni. Aglaan naatchi'amiuf taimma nakuuruakun timimigun pitxapluni.
Tamanna aglibnamik pixik ijuaqsirabautaat taimma atanniutiqaqtaqhuni ijuaqsianikami. Taamna atuumatqikkumieaieeipxugu Maniixauram uqautigigaa. Ilaanligguuq saffia, Piixamlu, ipqitchuq, nalunaitchuq. Itna akieeafniaqtuataunbitchuq, ijuaqqunguuq saffi. Tamatkua unniie akiitchabumarut piiqpagu.
Ayuanibruaq ixauniqsuq Qikiqtabrufmi, sieiqsraaburaaqhuni imma, afatkuqpaich katiraqpalugaqniqsut. Imma takku talubnajibmikkun kati'amif, uvva takku afalativut qaukjiich katiraqtut. Uvagut itna sumun kattutaatnik taapkua piitchuanik taimmali afatkuqpaich katikmatagguuq tasrammali taavrumuuna afalataujibmiktun liilaa. Uvva NANA-tkuayyaat katikmata, uvagut nunaaqqiurani piksraqtaafumaitchuani tuqjukkautlaitchugut. Taimma ixaatni paatnabiitxaplutif. Unniie afatkuqpaich uqajibmi taatnasrich katikmata ilifiteun, "Piixablu iieiabiptigie. Tamanna saffiksi saffiitchuq. Uvaguk saffikpuk pakmakfaqtaq saffitxuktuq. Ilipsi tamanna kamanautri uvvaquyuurapiabataq piibeiaqtuq. Makua aglinbaat avufatqikkumieaibisigaich. Qitunbieiaqtuat unniie ibeiuqtualibisirut tuppapsitei. Tamarra uvaguk saffikpuk ieufmik paaqsaaqatauyufnaitchuq. Saffiitchusri ilipsi iieiabiptikkie," itnabnibai afatkut.
Taatnaqmatif Ayuanibruagguuq uqallaktuq, "Qanuba iisabaitei sannibutauraqabisiruq." Itnallaktugguuq iisaaqsikpani uvani saffieixi sannibutaurani, akmaanigli takku piqabnibaich, akmaaq ixixxaktibukpalukkaa. Taatnaqhunigguuq taatna taamna taatnali pixxakkaa. Kamaginbitchaa.
Uvva aasrii taatnaqmatifguuq, taimma mamiatchatlarut. Takku afatkuuruat, taipkua uqaqmata, taimma ifmik saffioibmikkun tikitkaluababigaat inigaluagguuq, piitchuq Maniixauraq tarani. Inijhieaq, imea ieuusria piitchuq. Taimma taatna taamna saffikun uqautigigaa.
Uvva aasriie kufnigguuq qamma liilaa quviqnaqtuamik savaaqqaabatafan ixafat nani imma aullabniigaluaqpa. Ipnaieiglu ichuktaksrabmieik tikiutripxuni, qitunbauraqaqhuni samma malbuuvaluufnik. Tamaani tarufa tikiteami, tatqamma kurgich ixafatni nanitai imma sapnauruanun, ichuaqsieiqsuq ipnaimik. Tasramma aglibnapayaaq tamatkua nutiaqinabnipxugu, unniie tifilbautaksramik suaqjuitchuamik sallisitman ieuk, taipchua saffimik tigummivagitxutif nutiaqioiq aullabaqniqsuq. Taimma nutiaqioiq una uumatun epidemic-tun ittuq. Imibuliqhunigguuq ieuk taatna, diphtheria epidemic-tun itchuknaqtuq. Ieuk aasriie iluqaan taimma tuqutlasripxugu.
Ichuaqsikman iqsixiqamif aullaaqtuumaniqsut. Tuqutausrungitxutif taavruma power-fanik iqsipxutif. Tuunbaich power-fatnik. Uvva aasriie qitunbagguuq taapkuak pifigigaluabaich, talubikmigaat, unitchaich. Taamma tuquqqaabisiruk taapkuak.
Aullaafanigataqmata taimma umiaqtuqhuni naaggaqaa qayaqtuqhuni tikixgitchaqtuq. Taatna atnibeautmik saaganbitchuq. Taatnabaluabaigguuq, "Uvva iqsieamik piitchuq. Uvva tautuktitkiga taamna patchisaioiksraqsi." Sumik itnabaluabai iqsipiabataqtut. Tamarrumifa nutiaqinamik taimma sua iqsieaqpan.
Tara taatnabaluaqami, taimma tikitxapluni, qitunbak unniie nakuuruk. Taichufa ikaalgieeiqsuq Sisualifmun. Sisualifmun, umma sisuaqamif ukua Sisualifmiut, una nutaaq sisuaq taimma maktak qanuqtai, sumiktai avuplugu nibieaq iqsigilgieeibaat. Avunaitxugu samma ixafanie ixafanik taatnaqamif tasramma, taamna suli nutiaqinaq qanuqtai atnibeamik tigutlaplugu. Tautuktitluni taatnatchieik iqsigikkafiteik pisaqman qimaktibalualgitchaat. Taimmagguuq atnibeauramik unniie piebixgitchuq, qieiqtilgitchai saffimik.
Tautulgitchut tamarra saffimik. Saffisilaafa qieiqtinniuraaqjugu atnibeautiksramik tamatkua, taimma sua iqsigikpatruf taavrumuuna aglibnakun, iluqaan atubaluabaa taimma atnibeamik piebitchuq.
Uvva aasrii taamna Piixabli, uuma Aulasrautim, samma John Olson aapabisruknabaa. Qitunbafnixi unixxakjugik Sixallieibmukhuni. Sixallieibmie nuliatqiksimaruq taamna taiyukkafa, saffiqatiginitchafa Piixaq una. Piixaq aasriixi una tasramma tatqaani paniqaqpaluktubli. Uvva aasriie taimma qanutuntai ukiipxuni. Afatkuqpagikkafat taavruma uqajhagun atlamik saffiqaqtuq pakmakfaqtamik. Afatkuunbitchuq, Maniixauramtuuq saffianik sanniqaqtuq.
Uvva aasrii tatqakmanixi taimma ipnaiqsabiabniqsuq. Ipnaiqsabiaqhuni aasriie, panni unixxakjugu. Pitchaagguq ipnaich ipnaiqsabniuraagaqsigai taavruma Piixam. Taimma panni unieeibaa. "Taraniittuaburaallagie ipnaiqsabiabniaqtufa." Upinbaksraami sumi taimma uvva una piva. Upinbaksraami, suami tamannagguuq aputaitqataqtuq iglibvia.
Ipnaieun piruaq, pania una taqqigaluaqtuq, ipnaich aullalgitchut. Taglufnigguuq unixxafnibik. Nappallafnibik taimma atuqpakkumieaiqamigik.
Uvva aasrii taamna taatani utinbitman, tasramufa inimiknun taimma, ieuuniaqatmiknun, utiqamigguuq uqaqtuq, "Taataga utinbitchuq." Aapamieik pivalukkaa taamna Sixallieibmiuyaafusruknaqtuq. Tara taapkua pakkiabaluabnibaat, taimmagguuq piixxaktuq taamna Piixaq. Paqinbitchaat taimma, taimmaullaktuq. Taavruma qanuq piyaqquqtilaafa uqautiginbitchaak afatchiabmalu aanaalu. Taimma piixxaktuq aglaan. Una Maniixauram paatnabikkafa.
Uvva aasriie taamna maani atubnibaak. Tautuktinnibaa taatna patchisaioiksrafat, ieuk atisrixuni. Tamatkuagguuq naalabnitqikkumieaitchaich afatkuqpaich. Uqautaatigunguuq taluqsrabutif pitqikkumieaitchut. Ieuk atisrikpan, taatnagguuq nakuuruaq aggibeiaqtuq.
Uvva aasriie una ukua uqautigianikkaluabaat uvva imma ieuich. "Umiaq imma sixakun igliqtuaq, iknibum igliqtitafa, samma ixasri usriaqsibisirut taivrumani umiami. Tifmiruami iknikun, iknibum iglibutikkafa." Sunauvva uvva tifmisuutit marra engine-nik iglibutilgich. "Ixasri samma usriaqsibabisirut," taivrumani naalabniriksraitchuq. Itna itnabumieaipiaqtut. Ukpibiyufnaitchaat unniie. Taamna uqajiq uqautigikkafa taavruma marra taipchua aanaa ieuuqatai usriaqsibaaniktut. Taimani aanaga una ieuuffabmi Maniixauramik tautuksimaruaq.
Napaqsrablu Suli Uvluq Talubnaqtuaq
Tavragguuq iglau'ami, napaaqtuq ukua uqautigikkafat, taatnatun nappairaqtugguuq. Aasriie sumiktai nakititchixxakhuni. Taamnagguuq uvluq talubnaqtuq, itnababigaigguuq. "Uvva talubnaqtuq uvluq atausriq." Tara sunauvva Sunday.
Uvva aasriie taamnali sixatmun aullabvia uqautigigaat. Qakmufatmun Maniixauraq una aullaqami tatqakma iglauniqsuq tatqakma. Mauna Anaqtubvifmiutiguaqpaluktuq. Takku tamauna tatqakmufabiaq ittuq. Uvufa samma Maniixaq, Ivisaappaanie aullaqtuni tatqamma apqun ittuq. Tatqakma qaufaqtaqapta apqutikun, ittuq. Tamauna aullabniqsuq imma tamauna Ivisaakun. Katla River-kun mauna. Tatqakma Amaqqum Anaagun mauna. Tatqakma Nuataamun tikitchuq, Papiktigun mauna. Nalunaitchuq takku Igluayaaq. Tamanna qabanatluuraqtuq qapkunakfa iebibxuktuanie. Qanutun aglaan ieuuniaqpa Nunamiuni, aasriie qakmufa Utqiabvifmun tikitxuni. Tasramma Utqiabvium unniie avaniafanun, aglagviiefaisa takku una piuq. Nunaaqqixiebiefaisa Utqiabvifmiut. Tasramma Uuliktukun mauna naukun naaqaa Beechey Point-kun taimma taunuffitpaluktuq. Tatqapkua aasriie tautufnibaat.
Uvva aasriie kafiqsiuqapkik tatqakipkua kisumik qitunbaqaqmagaata, taimmaagguuq Canada-muktuq. Maniixauraq taimmali taatna isrumanixi una tuvraqjugu taavrumifa uqaqhuni aglibnaixaksramik. Taimma iluqaisa taatna uvanisun atuqpallukkai. Nalunaitchuq atubai. Una afatkuujhat piibeiabnipxugu, ieuk iluqani talubikkaibuni. Taamnagguuq ixikpan maani uqajha, ieugguuq nakuqsigisiruq iluqani, ixisimagaa.
Itluun taimmagguuq Canada-mukami taamanigguuq kieuviaqaqpaluktuq. Itluun una, Maniixauram ibeifa taamma napmun timikuva naaggaqaa Canada-mi taamma timikummiva. Naaggaqaa tatqaani. Aglaan Canada-muksimaruq tasramma.
Uvva taamna Maniixauram uqautaa tasramma atuumaruq. Uqautigiaqsigaat makua ixisimaruat taivrumifa. Akuniinbitchuq taimma manna qieuigaqsiruq ieuuniajhat. Tamarra aanaa uvluiei taimma tupqum, nunaaqqiuram, kiluani ibeityaqtaqtut taimani. Tamatkua aglibnaqhutif. Suli ieuk tuqukman ivruligaurabmikni, uvuuna paakun anitlaieeibaat taipkua. Igalikunguuq anittabigaat. Tamarra pitqutifich tamatkua afatkubruat taimma kamanajibmikkun.
Tamarragguuq tamanna atuumayumieaitchuq, igalikun unniie anitchirabajhat. Ieuitguuq tupiqtif una igitqatabumieaitchaat. Takku patchisaioiksrafat uqautigigaa.
Tamarra aanaali afatchiabmalu tautukkaak tamanna atlafuqtuaq uvlumikni. Uvva taatnatun ittugut. Tusraakkaqput imea aggiqsuksraun, atuumaniaqtuaq nalugikput. Aasrii tamatkua puuyunbiteamif uqautaat taavrumifa, sivuniksramik uqaqtim uqautaa kieulliixxi tautukjugu.
Uvva takku uumuunaptuuq quliaqtuatun. Immagguuq ataniqpaum ibeifa ataniksraq aggibeiaqtuq, itnaqtuat Bible-luni nibiugigaat taipkua. Nibiugigaat agaayyutim ibeifa ataniksraq aggibeiaqtuaq. Nibiugiurabniallaan tautusrufaqnagu taimma timikuruaq ieugiaktuq. Bible-lunik uvva aasriie taivrumali uqaksritqataqtim uqautigikkafa ukpibiplugu, aglakjugu tamatkua Naluabmiut. Uvagut aasriie aglatlaitxuta tusraajhieakkaptitnik taimma ixisimapluta. Aglaan ukpibigaluaqjugu. Aasriie aglaitxuni, uvagut atlabullaayugaqjugu, atlafullaayugaqjugu ixafani. Atlabuqpaurabaluaqtuq ieuuniajiqput aglaan taimma atuumatlaruq suli uqauttutaa. Aasriie qanutun aglaan uvagut uvva quyanaqtigiva taipchua unniie Isaiah-tkut makua uqautigikkafat imaqaaniktuaq Jesus aggianikmanli.
Uvagut tautukjugu tamarra taatnatun. Maniixauram aasriie una uqautigikkafa taimma atuumaaniktuq. Atuumagisipxuni suli. Suli saffi uqautigikkafa nalupqinaiqougu atuumapluni. Afatkunik iqsiebiqhuta. Uvva pakma taamna sivuniksramik uqaqtimik atiqabikput Maniixauraq. Aasriie uvvali-Eskimo prophet-itnababigikput itqaqtiqaptigu. Takku sivuniksramik imma atuumaniaqtuamik uqaqtuq.
Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English translation)
Thank you. This is Charlie Sheldon speaking. The subject we are attempting to discuss is not simple. We have heard about the life of Maniixauraq on earth which these people (referring to researchers) want to know about. People from the different villages have all heard it.
My mother and Qakiq discussed Maniixauraq more than once. You have heard about his origins. Someone mentioned lmbusriq. He originated from the Qalamiut, or those that lived at Qala. I want to tell about what mother and my uncle Qakiq said. They both had seen Maniixauraq and were quite familiar with him so they often discussed him. They saw him but it seems that they were quite young at the time. He was quite a bit older than they but the elders of their time knew him well.
And so mother spoke of Maniixauraq. She said that he lived with the people of the Upper Kobuk area. He said that he spoke only when the proper time came. It seems that he did not begin to speak until he was grown into an adult. However, when the right time did come, he spoke without any sign of fear.
It is said that his wife was a Sixallieibmiu, meaning one who lived beyond the mountains to the north. However, it is not clear to me whether or not this was his first wife or a second wife whom he married after heading north.
Maniixaq and the Afatkut: Piixaq and Ayaunibruaq
Many times people have to wait for calm weather before crossing the Kobuk Lake (Hotham Inlet) on their way to Kotzebue. Once Maniixaq had travelled down the Kobuk River and this is where he met some people who were waiting to cross. He told them that the time for him to speak had arrived. He said that his source of power was not the same as the afatkut. Instead his source of power was one that the afatkut did not know about.
His power was from above and as for the source of afatkut's so called greatness, he said that Piixaq and he were going to swallow it all (figuratively speaking to mean that they would eliminate it). He said, "When we swallow it, all the taboos will never be adhered to again. Their power which you once obeyed shall disappear. Piixaq and I are going to swallow it."
Piixaq was a Siixivifmiu, meaning one from along the Selawik River. He lived at the time of Maniixauraq and although he was regarded as an afatkut because of his powers, he, too, did not receive his powers from the same source as the afatkut. He was the one Maniixaq was referring to, saying, " Piixaq and I are going to swallow them." He also said that he would demonstrate the freedom that the people would some day acquire. All the taboos, including the one which required women to give birth behind a settlement away from home, would disappear.
When he said that he and Piixaq would help one another to swallow it all, many Elders here are familiar with the response given by Ayaunibgraq, also a Siixivifmiu. Ayaunibgraq was one of the powerful afatkut. He was feared and respected because people had seen him demonstrate his power. Well, Maniixaq said what he said to him in Kotzebue.
You see, there were afatkut in Kotzebue, too. They, similar to the other groups of people, also derived their power and ruled the people with the taboos. These rules were never to be disobeyed. This was their power although the powerful afatkut were capable of healing the people. However, their prescriptions called for such things as abstinence from berries or even masru, which is an edible root also known as the Eskimo potato. This abstinence often lasted a year or so, but as soon as the person went against the prescription, he was overcome by illness. However, if the person successfully followed the prescription of the afatkut, he/she was healed. However, a person was not healed without paying some price or obeying the afatkut.
In any event, Maniixaq said that all that would surely disappear. People would no longer practice these things. As for the power he and Piixaq were blessed with, it was untainted. It was pure and was not something with which to gain anything. It was a good power. It overcame all other powers which would lose when everything was caused to disappear.
Ayaunibgraq was in Kotzebue when Maniixauraq said this. It must have been that the powerful afatkut met much like our leaders do now. It is like the NANA Board of Directors meeting. We, who have not been elected to represent a village, are not summoned to attend their meetings. According to what people say, some of the afatkut paired off as partners. It must have been to such a gathering that Maniixauraq spoke, saying " Piixaq and I will swallow you all. Your power is not strong. Our power is stronger. As for your so called greatness, it shall disappear in the near future. No longer will young women who have reached puberty have to leave their homes. Mothers shall even give birth in your homes. Our power is not one that abuses the individual. Your power is not as strong and shall be swallowed up by ours."
Hearing this, it is said that Ayaunibgraq retorted, "It's possible that if anyone was to swallow me, there would be something to block the passage." Apparently he had a flint amulet which he used as a source of power that he may have meant to use to block the passage or fight any power that tried to eliminate his. This must have been what he meant. He surely did not believe Maniixauraq at that time.
However, the afatkut were easily offended when spoken to in such a disrespectful manner. According to what the elderly people said, they did have powers to reach his soul but each time they tried it, all they found was an empty shell. They could never reach the essence of his being. That is what was told about his powers.
Demonstrations of the New Power
One of the first unconventional things he did during his day happened somewhere along the river. It is said that once, arriving with his two children, he came upon a group of people somewhere along the river who were probably waiting for the weather to calm down before travelling further. Reaching them, he began to scrape the skin of a dall sheep which he had taken along for that very purpose. In those days, this was considered a strong taboo. Scraping skins or later on, even cutting a piece of canvas, resulted in contracting a contagious illness. They so strongly believed in the power of the afatkut that to go against the taboo resulted in this illness. It was much like an epidemic. I think it was similar to a diphtheria epidemic, causing people's mouths to dry up from a great thirst. This often killed groups of people.
Seeing Maniixaq scrape the skin, the people gathered their belongings and fled. They were afraid of the consequences that were sure to result from this scraping of the skin. They had no wish to die. They feared the supernatural powers who made it a law never to do such things. They were worried about his two children but they were also afraid of Maniixauraq. So, they left them behind. In their minds, they knew that the two would certainly be the first to die.
However, to their utter surprise, he reappeared, casually paddling either his skin boat or his kayak. He appeared to be well. It is said that he told them, "There is nothing to fear. I have demonstrated the freedom that is to come," but they were still badly frightened. They had seen what the epidemic could do. They did not understand how he continued to reappear and how his children even appeared healthy.
He continued this until one time he went across to Sisualik. As it was, the people at Sisualik considered it dangerous to eat fresh beluga muktuk mixed with something. To prove that they would not die if they did eat it, Maniixauraq purposely mixed the food in front of them. They fearfully moved away from him but, once again, he showed them that there was actually nothing to fear. He did not become ill or die.
Once again, they had witnessed a demonstration of his power. They saw how strong his power was as to overcome any illness that might have resulted from performing the forbidden acts. He wanted to prove to them that there was nothing to fear. They saw that in spite of all that he did, he had not become ill.
As for Piixaq, I think he was the father of Aulasraun, also known as John Olson. Apparently Piixaq left his children at Selawik and remarried after travelling North. He was the one Maniixauraq had referred to as a partner and (to my understanding) shared the same source of power. Piixaq must have had a daughter somewhere in the north. I am not sure how many years he lived up there. Although he was regarded as being a powerful afatkut, he, too, received his power from another source. It was the same as Maniixauraq's.
It is said that one day Piixaq went sheep hunting. He told his daughter that up in the mountains were sheep, and leaving her behind, he went up to hunt them. As he left, he told her, "Stay here and wait. I am going to hunt sheep." It must have been in the spring because it is said that there was no snow on parts of the trail.
Although he went to hunt the sheep, the sheep moved further away while his daughter waited for his return. All she found were his snowshoes. Evidently he had erected them on the snow when he no longer needed them. When he did not return, she went down to the camp and told the people there, "Father did not return," speaking in what was probably a northern dialect. The people went in search of him and it is said that was the time that Piixaq disappeared. He was not to be found. My uncle and mother did not say what happened to him. Maniixauraq's partner had simply disappeared. (His name Piixaq means 'that which is not.')
He and Maniixauraq had demonstrated their power here on earth. They showed that one day all the people would be equally free. They would never have to listen to and obey the powerful afatkut. They would not have to follow their advice because of fear. Instead, something good was coming and the day would come when everyone would become equally free.
Fire Powered Vehicles
Although this has been mentioned by other people, I wish to include it. (He also said,) "There is a boat which travels through the sky and is powered by fire. This is what some of you will ride in some day, a boat powered by fire." As it turned out, he meant engine powered aircraft. "Some of you shall ride (in such vehicles.)" In those days, no one paid any attention to him. They simply could not take him seriously. As far as they knew, they would never do such a seemingly impossible thing. They could not even begin to believe him. Well, some of the people from mother's time did ride in such aircraft. Mother had actually seen Maniixauraq.
The Pole and the Day of Reverence
Maniixauraq erected his pole everywhere he went. He then attached something to the end of the pole. He told the people that the day on which he attached something to it was a day to revere. He further told them that one special day should be respected. Today, we find it to be the Sabbath day, Sunday.
Maniixaq Travels North
The fact that he travelled north has also been mentioned. As he travelled north, he must have gone through Anaktuvik Pass. There is a trail to travel north from the Ambler area. Whenever we travelled north, the trail is there. He apparently left from the mouth and went up the Red Stone River and on to the Cutler River. Travelling through Amaqqum Anafa and Papik until he reached the Noatak River. After all, Igluayaaq is easy to find. That trail is a bit less difficult to travel than the mountainous terrain one has to follow further inland. It is not said how long he lived with the Nunamiut around Anaktuvik Pass before travelling on to Barrow. Of course, he travelled before Barrow was even established, before the time of schools. He went beyond Barrow and travelled either through Uuliktuq Point or maybe even Beechey Point. It is said that those that lived way up there saw him.
I asked those people who live up that way about any possible descendants Maniixauraq might have had. They said he went on to Canada. Maniixauraq travelled where his mind led him and told the people about the day when they would no longer have to adhere to the taboos and rules forced on them by the afatkut. I am sure he told them the same things he said here. It is certain that he did the same things. He told of how the afatkut would disappear and that people would not have to live in such fear. He said that on the day his predictions came true, things would be fine for everyone. There would be no more afatkut. He knew what would happen.
As for Itluun, he might have had descendants in Canada. They did not know where Maniixaq's son, Itluun, 'left his body.' It may be somewhere in the north or even Canada. However, it is said that he did go to Canada.
The Fulfillment of His Predictions
Maniixaq's predictions were fulfilled. People repeated his words and it was not long before their lives changed dramatically. It was as if life had calmed down compared to the life they had lived under the rules set forth by the afatkut. In the days of my mother, the women left their homes to give birth behind the settlements. This was done under the rules set forth by the afatkut. Also in those days, whenever a person died in the sodhouse, he was never taken outside through the main entrance. Instead, they took him out through the window or skylight. The people felt that they would become contaminated by being in contact with these people. Again, this is an example of the rules enforced by the powerful afatkut.
He said that it would all change. They would not have to do all that. The people would no longer have to abandon the homes which people died in. After all, freedom would surely come.
Mother and my uncle saw the changes in their day. We are the same. We have heard about the rest of the predictions that were made and we do not know exactly when they will be fulfilled. However, if people do not forget what has been said, later generations will see them fulfilled as we have seen the rest that our parents did not see.
It is the same with the Christian gospel. It is said that the son of God is coming. People expect him to come from what is told in the Bible. They expect the King that is coming. There are many people who have passed away before seeing him come. The Westerners believed their prophets and wrote down their words forming the Bible. As for us, we did not have a writing system and know only what we have heard. This has not altered our belief in the predictions. We believe just as strongly. Because it has not been written, some parts of it naturally change as it has been handed down repeatedly by word of mouth. Although we have already experienced a dramatic change in our life styles, there is still more to come. What joy comes to us to find out that the Son was born just as the prophet Isaiah predicted.
We have seen predictions fulfilled (just as those who witnessed the birth of Christ). Much of what Maniixauraq predicted has been fulfilled. There is more to come. We realize the power of which he spoke. We no longer live in fear of afatkut. Today we refer to Maniixauraq as a man who spoke of the future.
We remember him now as an Eskimo prophet. After all, he did predict the future.
Encouragement to the Other Elders
I am aggressive enough to speak again in case I have forgotten anything. Even if anyone tries to suppress me, I find myself speaking again. There are many people who have yet to speak.
As for those who live in the coastal area, they may be refraining from speaking up, thinking, "Those that live up the river and know about him will speak." They should not think and act this way. We have many Elders who have gathered here, coming from all over. Even Sivviq has heard something. He knows a lot that many of us younger Elders do not know. If he has noticed that something has not been mentioned, he should speak out. We are attempting to speak about something of importance, something that our descendants will experience. Although what we say today will seem new to us, it will become as a legend in the future. It is better if we tell what we know in the event that it might never get mentioned. Whatever we experienced yesterday has become history. We are experiencing the present today but our meeting here, in itself, is history. Our meeting now will be history tomorrow.