...Back To Maniixaq (2)
Clara Paaniikaaluk Lee (English Translation)
Uvva nutautlukjufa itkaluaqtufa ukunakfa, aglaan tusraakkamnigli uqallufniaqtufa. Uvva uqautigikkafich tamarra tusraakkavut nalaunfarut tamarra.
Nunaaqqiqpauraksrablu Abviblu PuiruksraqUvva uqabaqtut Ivisaappaani kivani abvibbuuq puigisieipxugu. Taimma taikea akivut nuvubaq itnasriq itniittuq (urraaqhuni isigakpaktun ittuamik nuvukkamik uqaqtuq). "Isigakpak taamnagguuq kivixuni abvibbuuq taatna puisabumaruq," itnabaqtut suli. Uqautigirabigaagguuq taatna. "Tarani Ivisaappaani tasramma, tarakfa paqillutif, apkuagguuq iivaqsaat, qatiqtaat ieuich, pisuukkafatguuq tarakfa paqillugu pigisirut. Paggagguuq pafna iebiq, pafna iebim manna pia qatiqtaanik ieeixxakkisiruq ieufnik iivaqsaanik," itnagguuq uqabaqtuq.
Tara tatkivakfa tara nunaaqqipta taavruma uqquqjieaurafanie, Tunuuram ixuanie, samma inibruafa paqitlaitxugu pieibikput. Tamaakfagguuq tara aullaqtuq, taimma aullaqtitababigaat. Tasramma Dorothy-m inaan ataani iglibeauraq, taranixigguuq Nasrualutkut ukua tarani ittut. Tara Nasrualuum taa taruigguuq tautullakkaluabaa. Aglaan ixisabitlasriebitchaa tarani.
Taragguuq uqabaqtuq, tatkimea Ivisaappaat una nappaanikpan, nunaaqqibaunikpan, uqabaqtugguuq taamna Ivisaappaat nunaaqqibaunikpan qanuqtilaksrafa nalunipxugu. Taamnagguuq tara isrugirabigaa uqaqami. Taamna tatkimea nunaaqqiqpaurabaunikpan. Uvvagguuq takku uqabaqtuq tatpafna pagga iebiq pafna tikkuaqtubabigaa iluqaan immixxakkisieipxugu ieufmik. Tatqammagguuq tamaakfa Naluabmiut pisuukkafatnik paqillutif. Naagga uvva tusraaqqayaqtaqtufa paqitaksragguuq imma kavurmam afmanbipqaqtauralibaa Ieupiat paqinbianikmatruf.
Uvva Maniixauraq una aanaqabniqsuq Qupilbuuramik. Tara Maniixauraq afayukjiupluni. Tarani aasrii Imbusriq. Tarani aasrii Qapujuk. Nukaqjiupluni aasrii Sieaana, suli Maniixauram nukatchiafa. Taimma ilaa Maniixauraq Itluutmik atiqsisuabiga qitunbafa. Panifmieiglugguuq taimma taavrumifalu ibeibmieik Itluutmik aullautriruq. Kivrumali Iyabaaluum uqautigigaa. Atqagguuq tara puuyullakkaa abnaata. Taakmagguuq Sisualifmun ixuviqqaaqjugu tara tatkivani ukiisuiqsaaqtuq. Sumiumik aglaan ixaqatniktilaafa apiqsrunbieeibiga.
Tara Imbutchim qitunbai Qapqaurablu, Qaksri, Paniyablu. Tara taapkuali taavruma Imbutchim qitunbai. Qaksri afutaupluni, taapkuak aasrii abnauplutik. Kimik ixaqatiqaqtilaafich aglaan kafiqsiebitchitka.Qapqauraq aasriixi qitunbaqabniqsuq Qaayaaqpafmik. Aniqatiqablugu uvva nalugiga Qaayaaqpak. Una Qaayaaqpaum aasrii tara tarakfa qitunbai ixisimagisri. Qapqaurablu, Siqieaurablu, Ixxiapaglu, Imbusribxu. Taimma Abnaqiea tuqupluni.
Taapkua aasriie Qaksrim qitunbai taimma Maniixaq, Aakatablu, Uyabablu, Paniyablu. Qayaq suli atlami abnami, afayukjiq tara. Taapkua aasrii atlami Ayakafmi.
Qayaq taakma aani ieuguqhuni Aalaasimi. Aalaasimiutluni. xisimasruknabaluabaich makua. Qayam qitunbai, Unaqsibxu, Ixuppablu, Ieukauluglu, Ixaibana, suli Afayuqauraq. Puuyubitka atlat.
Paniyaq aasrii Qapuvyufmik ibeiqabeirabigaat. Uvva taavrumifali qitunbaqabnirabigaa, afutmik. Taitcha Esther Skin, Qalifak pania Qapuvyuum. Qapuvyuum anifafa Uluak. Taimma Uluak nalugiga uvafa. Panitcham qitunbai, Ieabak ami tatkivva tiguafa. Qitunbaitpaluktuq una Uluak.Qapujuum aasrii tara ibeifa Piglibiaq. Atlamik aniqatiqablugu nalugiga. Piglibiam uvva qitunbai, aniqtukkaqtuat kisiiteik ixisimagitka. Nasrukjuuraq aakauraqjiuruq, Vera Custer, Qutan, Herbert Custer, Naulik-Nora Custer. Taapkua kisiiteik aniqtukkaqtuat ixisimagitka. Kieuviafich ixisimanaqtut.
Sieaan aasrii qitunbak Siqieaaluurablu, Qajhaqpaglu. Mrs. Cleveland. Siqieaaluuraq Akisaqpauramik nuliaqaqqaabuknabaluaqtuq. Nasruk aasriie nuliatqiutaa. Nasruum uvva naluabmiutchisaanik nalurufa. Naluabmiutchisaitchuknaqtuq. Aasrii Siqieaaluuram qitunbai, Immajuuraq-Joe Sun, Matuligauraq-Bessie Sheldon, Ieabak-Pansy Berry, Naannuu-Annie Sun, aanafa aglaan Paaniikaaluk. Siqieaaluuram paniksrafa qanuba, sivullibmigguuq abnaqqaabmiei. Qitunbaqabaluaqtuaq.
Qajhaqpaum aasriie qitunbai taimma, abnaurabbuuq, qitunbaqqaafa tuqupluni. Atiqsiebitchiga unniie. Akkaga tara Inuqtuaq afayukjiuruq. Inuqtuaq- Johnny Cleveland, tuglia aasrii Paaniikaaluk tuqupluni, tarani aasrii Nasrualuk- Robert Cleveland, Tilak, atipiafa Suqupsiraq-Truman Cleveland, Qupilbuuraq suli Charlie Cleveland utuqqautluktuaq Tilafmie, atlam ieuguqtitluguli pitchafa.
Tara taapkua Maniixauratkut Qupilbuuragguuq tara aanafat. Aglaan uvva taatafatnik uqatlaitchut. Uqautinbitmieibaatfa. Kimik taataqaqtilaafa nalukmigiga. Aglaan tara aanafat Qupilbuuraq. Uvagut ixisimanaqtugut kieuvaafi. Maniixauram kieuvaabigaafa.
Tarufanun aglaan pixxaktufa. Tara itqaginbitchuknabiga iluqaan. Makua marra uqautigigaat utuqqautluktaat.
Clara Paaniikaaluk Lee (English Translation)
Although I am younger than most of the Elders here, I am going to tell about what I have heard. Everything that has been told up to this point is just as we have heard it.
The Large City and the Whale
It has also been said that a whale is to surface near Ambler. As it is, there is a point of land across from the village which is shaped like this (gestures in the shape of a knobbed point.) They often say, "It is said that this Isigakpak (referring to the point, which literally means 'large foot') will sink and a whale will surface." They say that he spoke about it more than once. He also said, "The white skinned iivvaqsaat will find what they consider valuable near Ambler and the population will become so great that the foothills of the mountains (behind Ambler) will be full of these people."
It is said that he left from inside Tunnuuraq, which is located just below the village of Ambler. We simply have not found the remains of his old habitat. It is said that he left from around there. Below the hill by Dorothy Henry's house is a small niche-like clearing. This is where Robert Nasrualuk Cleveland lived as a child. It is said that Nasrualuk saw his great uncle (Maniixauraq) but he was quite young at the time.
It is said that each time Maniixauraq spoke of the future city of Ambler, he stated that he did not know the future beyond the establishment and growth of the large city. It is said that this would be the end of his predictions. He pointed in the direction of the mountains behind Ambler and said it would be filled with people after something valuable had been found there. As for me, it seems that I have heard rumors that the government is getting close to opening that area for possible mining since the Ieupiat have not found it yet. I do believe that the time is near for Ambler to become a large city.
Maniixauraq's mother was Qupilbuuraq. Maniixauraq was the eldest. His younger sisters were Imbusriq, Qapujuk and Sieaana.
As far as I know, Itluun was the name of his son. He also had a daughter and he is said to have left with two of his children. This is what lyabaaluk (old lady Ticket) said about him. However, she could not remember his wife's name. I did not ask where she was from, but it is said that after he buried his wife in Sisualik, he spent his last winter in Ambler area and went north after that.
As for Imbusriq, her children were Qapqauraq, Qaksri and Paniyaq. Qaksri was the only boy. However, I am not aware of their spouses' names.
As for Qapqauraq, she had a child named Qaayaaqpak. I am not aware of Qaayaaqpak having any brothers or sisters. From there, you know who Qaayaqpak's children are. They are Maude Qapqauraq Foxglove, Laura Siqieauraq Sun, Michael Ixxiapak Riley, Blanche Imbusriq Sheldon and Isaac Abnaqiea Riley, who passed away.
As for Qaksri, he had a son named Qayaq by his first wife. Later with his second wife, he had Nellie Maniixaq Atoruk, Jonas Aakataq Ward, Fay Uyubaq Foster and Clara Paniyaq Stalker.
Qayaq grew up in the Allakaket area. His children are E. Unaqsiq Sam, A. Ixuppaq Edwards, B. Ieukualuk Moses and W. Afayuqauraq Niuqtuun. There are probably more but I do not remember their names.
As for Paniyaq, she had a son named Qapuvyuk. Esther Qalifak Skin is Qapuvyuk's daughter. Qapuvyuk had an older brother named Uluak. She also adopted Pancy Ieabak Berry from her cousin Qajhaqpak, who was Sieaana's son. It might be that Uluak did not have any children.
As for Qapujuk, her son's name was Piglibiaq. I am not aware of any brothers and sisters which she might have had. As for Piglibiaq's children, I do know the ones that are alive now. There is Vera Nasrukjuuraq Custer, Herbert Qutan Custer and Nora Naulik Custer.
Sieaana's children were Siqieaaluuraq, also known as Old Man Sun and Qajhaqpak, Old Man Cleveland.
Siqieaaluuraq first married Akisaqpauraq, who had a daughter named Paaniikaaluk but I do not think they, themselves, had any children. However, he and his second wife, Nasruk, who most likely did not have an English name, and their children are Joe Immajuuraq Sun, Bessie Matuligauraq Sheldon, Pansy Ieabak Berry. A. Naanuu Sun was also his daughter, but by his step daughter Paaniikaaluk.
Qajhaqpak's first daughter died. I do not know her name. As for the rest, they are my uncle Johnny Inuqtuaq Cleveland, Paaniikaaluk died, Robert Nasrualuk Cleveland, Truman Siqupsiraq Tilak Cleveland and Charlie Qupilbuuraq Cleveland.
So that was a brief summary of Maniixaq's relatives. Their mother's name was Qupilbuuraq but no one ever speaks about who their father was. No one told me, that is. I do not know who his father was. The rest of us distant descendants of Maniixauraq are quite obvious. I, too, am one.
That is as far as I shall speak. I probably did not remember everything. However, these older people here are discussing it.
Nora Paaniikaaluk Norton (English Translation)
Uqaqpaksraitchufa, uvva uqautigigaat. Uvvali unnuaq nallaurabniaqama agaayyu'ama ixagigiga, takku agaayyutikun una uqautigikkaqsi uvva ittuq. Uvvali maamaga uqaaqtuaburaaqman, immakiaq nayujhaieablugu piyupku ixitchitxuurabalyaqpaluktuami ieunfunabniqsufa iyaalugruujjamnie aglaan. Maamagali uqaaqtullakman ixaatnimi tusraarabigiga. Taimeagguuq Maniixauraq tara agaayyutim sunauvva nipiksriqsuqjugu taatna uqabaqniqsuq. Takkugguuq napaqsraqabaqtuq aasriie uqaqhuni pakmakfa taataruabmieie taatna una uqaksraq qaisaukman uqautigirabigaa.
Naaggagguuq uvva taatnaqman makua ieuich arguaqtuqjugu. Imma ami, "Ieeiieea piixaanik uqaqtuq, nakie uvva uumaa tusraakkaqnik uqaaqsirabaich?" itnaqjugulugguuq pigaluababigaat, qanuq ixiuratlaitchugguuq taatna, taataruabmiein uqaksraq ixikman uqautiginipxugu uqabaqtuq.
Suliuvva makunifa tifmisuutinik ukua uqallaktut. Tifmisuutmie taavrumakfa una umiaq sivullibivalufnikkafa. Ieuitguuq ukammauraqhutif, ayaktuuraqhutif, ipunfuraqhutif, afuaburaqhutif, una umiaq iglibutiginiakkaqtif iglibutigirabigaat. Aasriigguuq taavruma Maniixam uqaqami, uvvagguuq ieuich umiam ixuani aquppiuraabutif itna, taatnagguuq umiaq igliqtiniguni, iglilibisirut ieuich. Ittuaburaabutif umiamun ikijhieabutif, tara ittuabutif taatna usriaqsialibisirut. Sunauvva taatna Engine-libxugu umiaq itna iglibatlasrigisikmata. Taamna suli tara tifmisuun uqautigigaat ukua. Sixakunguuq suli iglibutilik kivaknam tufaanie aggibisieipxugu. Tamarra uqautigikkafa iluqani immiqsuq.
Suli iivaqsaanigguq uqabaqtuq, taimma iivaqsaaksranik ieufnik aglaan makunakfa itna uvagut uvieiginbisaptitnik uvieilgich. Sunauvva aggiagisikmata taatna uqabaqniqsuq taimea. Qatiqtaanigguuq uvieilgich suli atlakaanik nuyalgich maufa nunamun aggibisieipxugich iivaqsaabutif uqabaqtuq.
Taatnali uvva maamaga ixavieaurami tusraarabigiga. Tasramma uqabaluaqpalugaqtuq uvafa nayuqtuakkabinbitxugu. Taimma kafiqsitxasriuraqama ixitchivasranbieeiqsufa.
Uvva suli Aqsivaabruk uqaqtitauraallakkafa, pania tara maufaqugaluabiga Maniixxiqisraqpata maufanbieeiqsuq. Aglautisrukkafani suli taamufanbisiqjufa. Maniixxiqikpatagguuq agliqiaksramnik saakkitchukkafani uqauraallaktuq. Aqsivaabrugguuq, tairruma Esther-m paapafa, taatafan tasrikataqjugugguuq pitxasriuraqtuaq pirabigaa. Sunauvvagguuq taapkua, ukua, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday itnatchimik nalugaluaqtitlugich, tallimat malbuaknigguuq ieiqtuiqsiabaqtuq Maniixauraq. Sabbath sunauvva. Sabbath uqabaqtut taimani, takku imma ifixbaan, Sunday-fieeipxugu uqabaqtut. Aasriie maunavak nuuttautigun uvagut pakma igliqhuta. Taatna uqabaqtut.
Taamnagguuq tara tallimat malbuatni Maniixaq taimea ieiqtuiqsiabaqtuq. Surabatlaitchuq. "Suvaata uvva uumaa ittuaqpich? Iqiasruksieaqhutin uvva ittuagaqsixgitchutin," itnasribaqjugugguuq ieuich pirabigaat. Takkugguuq taataruafan taatna pitqukmani, pitqurrutaagun taataruabmi taatnali ilaa ieuuniabniruq.
Taimea imma apai uqauraallakkaluaqtuq aglaglugich uvva pikpagich nakuutluktuksrat. Aglanbisiqhuni Esther Norton tarufaaglaan uqallaktufa.
Itnauvva naalaktuaqamif uvani taatna naluruatun ittuaffuabaqtut. Uvvaasrii samma aniyumif uqaatchagutillalgixxutif. Taamnauvva taatniittuq. Uqaqtuksraugaluaqtut iluqatif.
Nora Paaniikaaluk Norton (English translation)
I do not have much to say since they have told about him. Because the one we are discussing was a man of God, I included the discussion in my prayers last night.
Whenever mother told stories, it is possible that I could have learned more If I had stayed with her all the time, but I was an active child. However, sometimes I did listen to her stories. Now everyone has learned that it was God who was the source of Maniixauraq's predictions. It is said that he always had a pole and said that whenever words were given to him from his grandfather above, he related the words to the people.
The Skeptical Audience
People did not believe him in those days. They probably said things like, "Oh, what nonsense he is talking about, such nonsense! Hey, where do you hear about all the things you talk about anyway?" However, this did not discourage or affect him one bit. Instead, he replied that he spoke whenever the words came from his grandfather.
Another thing that these people have mentioned is aircraft. I believe he spoke first of the umiaq, or boat. It is said that people travelled in their skin boats or birch canoes by paddling with oars or one paddle, by pushing it along with a pole and/or by dogs or people pulling it with a tow line from land. Maniixaq predicted that people would some day travel in boats simply by sitting down as the boat would travel on its own power. All people would have to do was get into the boat, sit down and go. They would not have to work hard in order to travel. Now, we know he meant that people would ride in outboard motor powered boats. The people here have mentioned aircraft. He predicted that a fire powered vehicle would travel through the air and come from the east. These are some examples of the fulfillment of his predictions.
He also spoke of the Iivaqsaat that would come. He said that they did not have the same skin color as us. As it was, we find that he spoke of such people because strangers did come. By rounding points and bends of the waterways, which is meant by the word iivaqsaaq-, he said that people with light skin and different colored hair would come.
Those are some of the things that I did hear from my mother. She most certainly said more but because of my activeness, I did not learn as much as I could have when I had grown old enough to understand.
Aqsivaabruk also spoke concerning this subject and although I encouraged his daughter to come, she is not here. She also wanted to write some things but I did not make it over there. She wanted to give me something to read whenever Maniixaq was discussed.
Esther's father, Aqsivaabruk, said that Maniixaq rested every seven days, or on the seventh. Although people in those days knew nothing of the week-days as we know them today (for they viewed time and space from a different perspective than we do now), Maniixauraq rested on the seventh day. Today, we interpret this to be the Sabbath day. When Christianity was in its early stages in this area, people rested on the Sabbath, which was understood to be Saturday. Later we went along with those that changed their Sabbath to Sunday. As it was, it is said that Maniixauraq rested on the seventh of every seven days. He did not work on that day. People often said to him, "Why are you resting? You are just lazy, that is why you are not doing anything." He replied that he lived by the commandments of his grandfather. Esther Norton said more but she did not write them down, so that is all I have to say for now.
By the way, do you realize that when this group sits here and listens, they often suppress a lot they could be saying? Later when they leave the room, they will have much to say. That is the way it is even though everyone should speak now.
Alfred Taapsuk Stone (English Translation)
Aqsivaabruglu Pakigxu Nalaunnibaak Maniixauraq
Uvva Aqsivaabruglu Pakigxu nukatpiabruuffaaknik atiqsaabniqsuq taimea Maniixauraq itnakkafat. Maniixaq itnababigaat, aglaan uvva itqaa'amitruf maani, sunauvva Maniixauraq.
Uvva Aksifmun tikieeiqsuq ixaatni upinbaksraqtuami. Ibeifanguuq iglibutinikkafa. Uvva aasrii taapkuak Aksifmiuk ikayuaqsieiqsuk tatpavuuna Igluyaabruakun, Nuurviksram kiluagun natibnakun. Tasramma qanutuntai igliqhutif, tatpamma uqquqjieaafanun tamaufa, Aksifmie ieakfa igliqhutif, nullabniqsut qimibaatchiam qaafanun.
Uvvaasrii nullaqamik, uniatguuq ataatni unani napaaqtuq taatna napaqsraksraq inniqsuq. Napaqsrakkafuniqsubbuuq uvva. Ibeifan nappabnibaa uvani nullabniafaniktiqami. Taapkuak tara unakfa qiruktaqtuuraqhutik, narvamie sikutaqtuqhutik. Nukatpibaksraak qanuba uvva pieiqsuk Aqsivaabruglu Pakigxu, ixxubruabiik.
Qixautiqabniqsugguuq, ukua quviasrukamif qixautaatnik ittuatun. Tara imma piyumieaqsi'ami una qixautrauraagaqsieiqsuq. Kasraktuaburaabaluaqami imma, atuqpa suvatai, samma qanuq uqautiginbitchaak. Aglaan uvva qixautrauraabnigaak uqautigi'amitchu.
Qasruqami nipliqsugguuq, "Yaiy. Yaiy." Taamna nakuuksriruni taavrumifa nipliutikaaq suli kamakkutaupluni, taatnali uvafa kafiqsimagiga. Tara taatnaqqaaqhuni uqaaqtuuraagaqsirugguuq. Ixitqusrigguuq manna maani pakma ittuaq simmibisiruq, iivaqsaat aggisuaqpata. Immagguug aggibisirut. Iivaqsaatguuq ilifiteieguuq atlauruat. Mannagguuq ieuuniajiq simmibisiruq. Uqaaqtuuraagaqsiruq.
Taatnauraabatabaluaqami kasraktuagaqsixgitchuq. Kasraktuabatabaluaqami nutqaqamigguuq uqaaqtuuraagaqsixibaqtuq. Ilaagguuq taataruaqaqtuq. Taataruafanguuq uvva uqautikmani uqabaqtuq. Taataruafagguuq kamanabniaqtuafunbitchaluaqtuq pakma, kamanabniabviksrani tikitpan kamanabisikmiuqtuuq aglaan.
Tamarra taamna umiaq uqautigilbaabnibaa. Ieuitguuq sakuugurabniabutif iglibniabumieaitchut. Mannagguuq atanniqsuuraablugu aglibutrif napmuabatlasrigisirut, qabalutif, aquppiuraabutif. Mannagguuq aglibnaq piiqmixuni, manna ittuaq pakma. Suli sixakun igliqtualibutif pigisirut.
Pakifmiexi uvva tusraayugaakkaba, uumakfa afatchiapiamnie Aqsivaabrufmie, uqaqman imma kafiqsimmaabiebisibuknabnibiga, taamna aglaa Pakik una maliqsrukkaba uqabaqtuq taatna.
Tara imma uqautigirabigaa suli. Tarani uqabinbitchaluaqpalukkaa. Ukua takku Pakik una atautiraqnibaak afayuqaakkie. Unaqsiqisruurugguuq una taatafa. Taatagikkafa qieiqtaa Mikiana. Ukua Qutitchiatkut, Kavbiuratkut taataruafat. Maamafata taatafa. Tara taapkua Pakik ixagigaat.
Maamamieie Tikaabmiufuruq. Afutivluk aanaruabigaa aasrii Aqsravatnamik maamaqaqhuni, Tikaabmiufnik. Tamaani timikullaamaruk kuufmi. Uvvagguuq niqaixiqiliqmata uvani autauraqhutif aatchuqmatni, sipifmik uumifa aatchubuuvalufnibaat aaqauksraatchauraq una Afutivluk, "Niulibaatchii," nipliqsitababigaat taimma. Tikaabmiut uqautigivalukkaat taatna. Taatnatchiohaieamik aatchuqtuqmatni quyaginbiqamiuf imma taatna nipliouabaqniqsuq niqaixiqijhatni.
Tasramma Qikiqtabrufmi uqautigigaat piuffixabiplugu afatkut. Pisukkaluabaqnibaat, ieuusrianik paqitlaieeiqsut, qanuq qanuutiksraineeibaat, sapiqpalukjugu imma pivalufnibaat. Paqitlaitxugu uqautigirabigaat.
Aasrii uvva uqaqabaqniqsuq, tamatkua afatkuuruat saffiat manna piiebieeipxugu. Iixxaasrukkumigitguuq iixxanayabaluabai aglaanguuq uuma taataruafan saffigikkafan ixitqusribinbitchaa. Piqutnaabinbitchaa. Kamanabniabuni pakma inbitchuq. Paaqsaabnianbitchaagguuq taatarui. Taatna uqautigirabigaat. Ayaunibruuraq taimma sannifaniurallaktibayabnipxuni iisaaqsikpani itnaqtitababigaat suli.
Alfred Taapsuk Stone (English Translation)
Aqsivaabruk and Pakik Meet Maniixauraq
Aqsivaabruk and Pakik were boys when the one referred to as Maniixauraq passed by on his way down the Kobuk River. He is also known by the name Maniixaq but as I listened to the Elders here speak about him, he was actually known by the name Maniixauraq. One spring he arrived at Aksik, an old settlement near Noorvik.
It is said that his son was travelling with him at the time. The two boys from Aksik, Aqsivaabruk, and Pakik helped him as he went by Iglubyaabruaq on the tundra behind what was later to become Noorvik. It is not said how long they travelled from Aksik until they reached a low ridge down the river from Noorvik.
When they settled to camp, the two boys noticed that there was a log pole beneath the sleds. Obviously it was to be erected and was not just any ordinary log. After setting up camp, his son erected the pole. The two cousins, Aqsivaabruk and Pakik helped out by gathering wood and fetching ice from a lake. They must have been in their adolescent years, grown boys but not quite young men yet, at the time.
They said that he had a drum, just like the one that these people here use for their enjoyment. Once he was settled, he began to beat the drum. I am not certain whether he sang or not after beating the drum because they did not say. However, they did say that he beat the drum.
When he was done, he exclaimed, "Yaiy! Yaiy!" He said the word used, in my understanding, to express a feeling of good will, praise, and awe. After this exclamation, he spoke. He said that their lifestyle, which they were presently experiencing would change dramatically once the iivaqsaat came. He said that the iivaqsaat would come in the future. The iivaqsaat were said to be different than the leupiat and life would surely change. This was how he began his predictions.
The Inspiration of His Thoughts
After that, he resumed his slow drumbeats. It is said that he spoke after each series of drumbeats. He said that he had a grandfather. He spoke only because his grandfather directed his thoughts. He also said that although his grandfather did not show his greatness by demonstrating his power now, someday, when the time came, his glorious power would be seen.
Apparently he spoke first of the boat. He predicted that someday people would no longer have to labor just to move their boats. Instead, they would remain sitting and easily control the vessel and travel with ease. He also predicted that all the taboos of their day would be eliminated. They would also be able to travel through the sky.
This is what I heard from Pakik. When my real uncle Aqsivaabruk spoke about it, I must now have understood it clearly but as I followed Pakik constantly, he often related that story.
He also spoke about other incidents related to Maniixaq. You see, Pakik's parents travelled down the river and on to the coastal area such as Kotzebue every spring. It is said that Pakik's father, Mikiana, was a woodworker. He was the grandfather of Qutitchiaq, Kaubiuraq and them. He was their mother's father. Pakik is related to that family. His mother was from Pt. Hope. Afutivluk was his grandmother and his mother was Aqsravatnaq. They were from Pt. Hope but they both passed away and their bodies were laid to rest along the river. In fact, it is said that when food was scarce, food had to be rationed out and it must have been that the old lady Afutivluk was usually given the tail end of a fish and she is often quoted as saying, "Niulibaatchii." She probably said this when she no longer appreciated receiving the tail end of the fish. It might be that people of Pt. Hope quoted her also.
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
In any event, it is often said that afatkut were gathered in Kotzebue once and did not take Maniixaq's power seriously. However, they felt that he was an annoyance and desired to kill him. They looked for his soul with their own powers but failed to find it. Apparently Maniixauraq was actually too powerful for them. The fact that they could never find his soul has often been told.
Maniixaq also said that the afatkut's power itself was actually not as strong as it was often made out to be. He is quoted as saying that in fact, if he so desired, he was able to swallow them but this simply was not the nature of the power of his grandfather. His grandfather did not do such mere, foolish things to demonstrate his true, great power. It was not yet the time for his glory. Maniixaq added that he would never go against his grandfather. This is what they say about Maniixauraq. Ayaunibruuraq, an afatkuq, is also often quoted as saying that he would attempt to block the passage if anyone were to swallow him.
Charlie Qabmak Kiana (English Translation)
Paapaga Kuufmiufuruq. Maamaga aasriie Tagrabvifmie, Narvasrugrufmie. Aasrii uvafa Nuurvifmi anipxufa, one yiaq-miufalu timaurrutipluta Siixivifmun, maamaa pivianun.Paapaga qanutuntai aktilaaqaqhuni tautufnibaa Maniixauraq. Napaqsranigguuq avufa ieuich tutmibabinbisafatnun nappabaqnibaa. Aasriiguuq qulligauraqabaqniqsuq ataramigguuq. Ibbubaqniqsuq ataramik puyaieeiabaqniqsuq. Aasriiguuq makua ieuich pisaayugautigiplugu, "Uqaaqtubuunibuguutin uqaaqtubie," tamatkua mitautiginiaqjugu piraqnibaat. Tatqavakfamie Kuuvafmie, kuufni tamaani, sunitai nullabniqsuq.
Aasrii uvva itnabaigguuq, "Pakivruma qatiqtaajhaieanik atuqtuam, qatiqtaajhaieanik pirilgum uqaksriebitmafa uqatlaitchufa."
Charlie Qabmak Kiana (English translation)
My father was a Kuufmiu, meaning one from the river. My mother was from the Tagrabvik River, from Narvasrugruk, located in the Upper Selawik area. I was born in Noorvik but moved at the age of one across to Selawik, which was where my mother eventually died.
I do not know how old my father was when he saw Maniixauraq. He said that he noticed that Maniixauraq erected his napaqsraq, or pole, away from the path of the people. It is also said that he had a birch basket and that he had a habit of washing frequently, which was rather uncommon in those days. Cleanliness was a characteristic habit of his.
It is also said that people often ridiculed and made fun of him, saying, "We hear that you speak of strange things. Go ahead and speak now." This incident must have happened once when he camped somewhere along the river as he came from the Upper Kobuk area.
It is said that he replied, "Unless I am directed by the one above who is dressed in white and whose aides are also dressed in white, I do not speak."
Frieda Anniviaq Goodwin (English Translation)
Uqaksraqpafmik uvva piitmiufa aglaan uvva ixaqatiga Ayagiaq uqaaqtubaqtuq tautukkabmieik. Ixaatnigguuq nukatpiabruuffaan Sisuaxifmun afayuqaafie uqsrafniabataqmata, afayuqaafi taakmufabniqsut. Uvvaasrii Maniixagguuq, Maniixagguuq taiyubaat, tautukmiyaa.
Uvlutguuq ixafatni napaqsrauraqaqbaqniqsuq, sumik imea tatpikea, ixiqnaalufmik qanu pivalugabigaa ukiohaafitpan, naaggaqaa ukiohaanikmiublu pivauf. Ukiohaaqaqqaqtut makua qatiqtaanik, pautalifnik taiyukkafiteik. Uvlutguuq ixafatni napaqsrauraqaqhuni tatpichuuna ixallitchixxakjugu ittuaburaabaqtuq. Aglaagguuq uqaaqtubaluabaqtuq.
Kafiqsieaixaq Uqaq Suli Tapinnixuktuat Aglaich
Taragguuq uqaaqtuqami, itna uqautri'ami, atubaqtuq kafiqsieaixaanik taieixifnik. Atuqhuni pigaluaqami, kafiqsieaixaanik suli uqaaqsiraqtuq. Kafiqsieaitchubbuuq, uqabaluabaqtubbuuq kafiqsieaitchuq. Atlamigguuq uqaniktibaqtuq. Aasriie uvva taatna uqabaluaqami tupibmiei uvani, tupqurabmiei uqautrigaluaqami, anipxuni, ieuich marra naalaktuaqtitlugich, sixamunguuq itna itnaqhuni (urraaqhuni) uqaaqsiraqtuq kafiqsieaixaamik. Uqabaluaqami aasrii qumikhuni, akkuni tamatkua samuuna piatigun, taatnaqami tigguuraaqhuni. Tigguuraaqhuni aasrii qamufa atigimi taavruma ixuanun itnaqjugu (urraalgitchuq) taamna tigumiani. Uvanigguuq atigimi ixuani itnasribaaqsipmagugguuq aglagraitchiatguuq tapinnixuaqsiraqtut tarani.
Apiqsruqtuqti: Taapkua aglaich piibabivat?
Piibaqtutguuq. Taatnagguuq naluabmiuraaqhuni pivalugaqtuq, qanu suami atlamigguuq uqaniktibaqtuq kafiqsieaixaamik. Taatna aasrii uvani igligaqtigaqsirabigaigguuq aglagraitchaat tapinnixukhutif qieibnaaqsiraqtut. Taimma aasrii piiqmipxutiflu. Sixamunguuq uvva samuuna atigini qumigataqqaaqhuni, paufa itna tigguuraabaqtuq. Taimma aasrii tautufnaixaamik taatna tigguuraaqhuni, qumikhuni, uvufa ixikman aglagraitchiatguuq tapinnixugaqtut.
Taragguuq taatarui pakimna talubnabnirabigaa. Sumieguuq iluqaanie saffitxufnipxugu itnabaqtuq. Suligguuq nuna aglibnaibisiruq. Suligguuq ieuk aquppiuraabuni anubi paablugu iglilibisiruq. Suligguuq sixakun iglarritqatalibisirut, iknibmik aullatalifmik. Tasrammagguuq iknibmik aullatilgich nanipalaaq qipirabalibisirut.
Taatnabaluaqamigguuq uqaaqsiraqtuq makua afatkut kinnikkaunipxugich. "Kinnikkaurusri piiffixamun uvva ieukjuqutaaqtimun, aglibnaqaqtitchieiaqtuamun tunfarusri. Suvaata taataruamnun pakmani ittuamun tunfaniuranbitpisi?" Taragguuq taatnabaluababigai tamatkua afatkut.
Tarali ixaqatiga uqaaqtuqman naalaktuababigiga taivrumifa tara uqabaluaqamigguuq itnabaqtuq, Ivisaappaatguuq uvva ieugiaksigisirut. Taatna unna uuma uqautigigaa akku. Nunamieguuq makua ieuich qatiqtaat pigisruukkafatnik paqitpata, ieugiaksigisiruq. Iivaqsaatguuq imma ixaatni aggibisirut.
Sixam Qanuqtilaaksrafa Abviq Puifanikpan
Ieugiaksiqpauraqpanguuq Ivisaappaat, itna ieuk ieugiaksixuni kuufmi akixxibiiksitpan, abvibbuuq kuukun tamarrumuuna puigisiruq. Taragguuq puipchaqqaablugu sixamguuq uuma qanuq pisilaksrafa taavamnaafa abviq puipchaqqaablugu nalugaa. Qanubisivagguuq taimma sixa. Taamnagguuq uqautigi'amiuf, itna quviatchuabiguni pitxaitchuq. Aliagigaagguuq taamna uqautigisaqamiuf. Sixamguuq qanuqtilaaksrafa uuma nalugaa. Taragguuq aglaan abviq puipchaqqaablugu taavamnaaksraq nalunirabigaa. Taavrumifali ixaqatma uqaaqtuutigisruukkafanik uqaaqtullaktufa.
Ixaqatiga uvva Ayagiaq uqaaqtuutigi'amiuf, taamnagguuq ixalligauraqaqami uvluvak uqaaqtujhaieabaqtuq. Taatna uvlut ixafatni surabasrufaqani.
Suligguuq uqpigaurat qalibiiksitaabataqjugich sieigviuraqaqtuq suli. Maanigguuq nunajhieami sieitlaieeiqsuq suli. Uqpigaurat qalibiiksitlugich, qutchiksipxugich uqummagauraqabaqniqsuq suli. Uqaqsaqama uvani puuyubuuplufaptuuq. Tara ixaqatma uqaaqtuutigigaluababigaa qieiqsimaplugu Sisualifmigguuq.
Afatkulla Maniixamlu Ieuusrian Qaumanba
Taragguuq afatkut makua imma naalaktuaqhutif, taatna sixami puuqmatni, afatkunik ixaqaqmata, "Uvva ilipsi afatkuni kinnipkaqtusri uumufa nunam piraanun. Saffiitchuq. Taataruaba pakmani ittuaq saffiruq."
Taragguuq taatnaqmatif, afatkut makua mamiatlutif, sieiktukkaqamif piyyiutigaluababigaat. Aquppiutanigguuq taatna itna aquppiuraaqhuni qieiaqsirabigaat aquppiuraaqtuaq. Qaumanbagguuq killiqqiabikhuni tamarra, naniitmiuq, ifmieik qaumaugaqhuni killiqqiabikhuni ittuq. Qieibabigaat.
Uvva aasrii sutigun samna pitchabniaqsaaqsikmatni, qaulaaqtiqhunigguuq aquppiutaqtuummabmi qulvaqtaaqtibaqtuq. Taimma aasrii sutigun taatna pitchabviksraqsiuqjugu pipmatni, qaulaaqtiqhuni qulvaqtaaqtibaqtugguuq aquppiutaqtuummabmi. Tara taatna qaulaaqtiqataqhuni qulvaaqsipman, kiisaimmagguuqtai qiteabiliutiplugu ayuliutirabivaat, pitchanbixxakjugu aasrii taimma.
Ixitqusriagun ami tara sieiktukkaqamifli, ifmigli ixisimmatmikkun piaqsi'amif taatnagguuq qieibabigaat. Ieuusria qanuba qieibabigaat.
Taragguuq Sisualifmi taichani sisuabniaqmata aglibikkafiteik savakhuni, ieiqtibaluaqtitluni. Ichufnaitmipchaqjugu ikiulliabrufnik makunifa, niunigguuq ichuakkibaqtuq. Uvva sisuaqtuqmipchaqtitlugich, aglibipmipchaqtitlugich. Iqsigaluabaqtutguuq. Tamanna aglibnaq piibisieipxugu, ilaanguuq taataruafa tamatkunuuna saffiqanbitchuq. Ilifisagguuq uvva ieuich ukpibiplugu, "Taatnabisirugut," itna ukpibiplugu, tamarragguuq atuumapkababigaat. Itnabaqtubbuuq.
Freida Anniviaq Goodwin (English translation)
I, too, do not have much to say. However, my husband Ayagiaq often spoke of what he saw. He said that once, as a young boy, he followed his parents to Sisualik, where people usually went to make seal oil and beluga muktuk. He said that is where he saw the one called Maniixaq.
He said that Maniixauraq had a strange habit of attaching something to the end of his pole on a certain day and resting. Whether it was a piece of animal skin, I am not certain. If it happened after fabric was introduced, the first fabric was called pautalik. (However, it was probably a piece of skin because the strange people he predicted would come certainly had not come yet.) In any event, he rested on that special day although he did speak of his predictions.
The Strange Language and the Mysterious Letters
It is said that as he spoke about these strange things to come, he sang songs in words that no one could understand. After singing, he spoke in a strange language. No one was able to understand him.
After speaking in the strange language inside his skin tent, he came out, and as the people listened, he made a gesture and spoke again in the strange language. After speaking, he pulled his hands and arms into his parka. He then pulled them back out from below the hem of his parka and reached for invisible objects in the air. He put these inside his parka and made another gesture. It is said that when he made this gesture inside his parka, large letters appeared through his parka as if the parka was transparent.
Researcher Craig: Did the translucent letters disappear?
It is said that they did disappear. It is speculated that it may have been English that he spoke, but no one knows for sure. The only certain thing about it was that he did speak in a strange language which no one could understand. After that, he moved the large letters and they appeared translucent through his parka. However, they did disappear. After pulling his hands into his parka, he pulled them out under his hem and pulled invisible objects from the air and when he put them inside his parka, the letters became semi-visible.
It was then that he spoke to the people (in Ieupiaq). He said that his grandfather above was so powerful that he deserved the utmost respect and obedience. His power was greater than that of everything else. Maniixaq then predicted the land would soon be free of all the taboos that governed the lives of the people. Someday people would travel against the wind merely by sitting down. Travellers would come travelling through the air in fire-powered vehicles. In fact, all these fire powered vehicles would travel all over.
After saying these things, he added that the afatkut were deceived. He said, "You are deceived by one who is actually nothing. You believe in a useless trouble maker who only tries to make people live by the taboos. Why don't you believe instead in my grandfather above?" It is said that he often said this to the afatkut.
The Large City
I listened whenever my husband spoke of Maniixauraq. He also said that after Maniixauraq spoke, he added that someday the mouth of the Ambler River, where Ambler is presently located and has that native name, would become densely populated. It is as the previous speaker told it a while ago. When something which the white skinned people value is discovered in the ground, it would become populated. He said that the iivaqsaat would come someday.
The Future After the Surfacing of the Whale
In the event that Ivisaappaa [Ambler] became so densely populated that the people would live on both sides of the river, a great whale would surface on the river. However, after the appearance of this whale, he said that he did not know what the future held beyond that point. He wondered out loud what would happen. It is said that whenever he said this, he appeared to be filled with great sadness. It was depressing for him to say that he did not know what would happen to the earth. This always happened after he told of the whale that would surface. I have just related what my husband often talked about.
The Day of Rest
Whenever my husband, Ayagiaq, spoke about the pole, he said that whenever the pole had something attached to it, Maniixaq would speak of the predictions all that day. It was on one of the days in which he did not work.
Another thing was that he did not sleep on the ground. Instead he stacked willow branches together and placed his fur bedding on these.
My husband saw him at Sisualik and spoke of him many times, but each time when I sit in front of the microphone, I forget all the things I wanted to say.
The Afatkut and the Brilliant Aura
Whenever Maniixaq was surrounded by a listening audience and there happened to be an afatkuq or two among the crowd, he told them, "You afatkut are deceived by the one of the earth. He is actually quite powerless. My grandfather above is the truly powerful one."
When he said this to the afatkut, they took it as an insult and were offended by it. So when they were in their trances, they looked for his soul. However, they found him sitting on a chair surrounded by a brilliant glow. Although there was no lamp visible anywhere, the edge of the glow that surrounded him was clearly defined.
Each time they tried in some way to attack Maniixaq's spirit, it is said that the light became brighter and he and his chair were elevated higher. Once again, the afatkut searched for another way to reach him but again the light became even more brilliant and he was elevated even higher. Each time he rose, he became brighter and brighter until soon the light became too bright for the afatkut to even look at, thus they failed to kill his spirit.
They saw him through their own knowledge of being able to connect with the soul or the spirit of a person. This was the way they tried to kill him, but Maniixaq's soul was always surrounded by the brilliant glow.
Demonstrations of the New Power
Ayagiaq also said that at Sisualik, as people worked together to catch beluga, it was considered taboo to scrape the membrane of dried skins. In spite of warnings not to do this, Maniixaq scraped caribou leggings at Sisualik. As the people ate the beluga muktuk, it was considered dangerous, even fatal, to be doing this scraping of animal skins during that season. The people expressed their fear at this deed, but he told them that the repression they experienced because of the taboos would disappear. He said that his grandfather did not base his power on things of that nature. He said that the suppression was, more or less, self-inflicted because of the people's strong belief in its effects. Because they said, "This is going to happen to us," their belief made it happen. Maniixaq is reported to have said these things.
Grace Kavbie Outwater (English Translation)
Taatnagguuq ieuich inillakmata isrutvaanun napaqsramik nappairaqtubli taamna Maniixauraq. Taatna aasrii imma uqaaqsi'ami tatpakfamie uqaksrisaqtiqabnipxuni uqaaqsipxunixi. Taatnabaluaqman aasrii uvva makua afatkut, nunamiexi samakfa piruat, taatna kafiqsieiurallafniabaluabaatguuq sapibaat qaumavagitxuni. Ipqitpagitxuni, qaumavagitxuni, kafiqsitxaitchaatguuq sumie pisilaafa.
Sivuniksraq UqautigikkafaMaamaa uvva uqautigigaluababigaa ieugiakjugu, puuyutuvagitxufa puuyubiga. Uqautigianillaksimagaat tamarra sixakun ikniligauranik, imikun, kuukun ikniligauranik ieuich aulaalulibisieipxugich qabasrivagixxutif suligguuq uqabaqtut. Suli makua, qufunik taimani taiyukkafich piibisieipxugitguuq suli uqaqhuni. Tara uqautigianikkaat uvva, tarufa pixxaglafa.
Grace Outwater (English translation)
Maniixaq's Source of Power
It is said that when a group of people camped, Maniixauraq erected his pole at one end of the camp. Whenever he spoke, he said that his words came from above. Because of his insistence and certainty about his source of power, the afatkut, whose powers were from below there underneath the ground, tried vainly to understand Maniixauraq's source of power. They failed because Maniixauraq's soul was too brilliant. The light that shone around his soul was so pure and brilliant, they could not comprehend its source.
Mother spoke about the predictions often but my memory is not sharp any more. Besides, most of the predictions have already been mentioned such as those of people travelling through the sky and water in fire powered vehicles, and of life becoming leisurely in comparison to the old days due to all the technological conveniences that came. He also said that people who were shunned in the old days would no longer be shunned. Since everything has been mentioned, that is all I will say.