About the www.Alaskool.org project and its developers
Maniixaq

Note on Internet Version of Maniixaq:

Alaskool is pleased to help share this important example of cultural preservation which, unfortunately, is no longer in print. Maniixaq is known by people of the NANA region as a prophet sent from God. It is hoped students will take initiative to learn about who Maniixaq was and of his important predictions about the future of the Ieupiaq people of Northwestern Alaska.

Joe Ballot, an Ieupiaq from Selawik, was the primary language consultant who produced the sound files for Alaskool's online version of the book Maniixaq. We were fortunate to have such a highly qualified person participate in the making of the sound files. Joe headed up a non-profit corporation in Kotzebue, and has extensive experience translating the bible from English to Ieupiaq. Joe provided proficient knowledge and awareness of the intricacies in keeping the context of what was said by the Elders when making the sound files. Joe was very quick picking up computer literacy skills needed to produce the sound files. To hear the sound files it will be necessary to either have or download the RealPlayer.

Note on Fonts: In order to reproduce the Iñupiaq characters properly on your computer, you need to download the Iñupiaq font and install it on your computer. There is a Mac font and a PC font. Below is a picture of a phrase that will look correct on your computer and the actual text for the phrase. Are the two phrases below the same?

Picture of an Inupiaq Phrase:
The Typed Phrase: Uvafa tikiqattaabivut xivut.

If the phrases in the table above are not the same, then you must download and install the Inupiaq font on your computer in order to view the Inupiaq materials on this site properly. THERE ARE NO X's IN INUPIAQ! Download Inupiaq Font.

Though you will still want to download the Iñupiaq font for some words - names, etc. to look right, the book "Maniilaq" is available in an English language version here


Maniixaq
Compiled by

Ruth Ramoth-Sampson
and
Angeline Newlin
From Tape Recordings by

Beatrice Anausuk Mouse Suzie Anibniq Stocking
Charlie Qieuban Lee Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon
Clara Paaniikaaluk Lee Nora Paaniikaaluk Norton
Alfred Taapsuk Stone Charlie Qabmak Kiana
Frieda Anniviaq Goodwin Grace Kavbie Outwater
Chester Sivviq Seveck Robert Aqqaluk Newlin
Rachel Savibummuaq Craig Elwood Uyaan Hunnicutt
Dinah Aviq Frankson Tommy Masruana Lee
Fay Uyubaq Foster Elmer Imbusriq Ballot
Robert Nasruk Cleveland  

Iñupiat transcriptions and proofreading by
Ruth Ramoth-Sampson
Angeline Newlin and Minnie Gray

English translations by
Ruth Ramoth-Sampson

Edited by
Tupou L. Pulu and Ruth Ramoth-Sampson

Illustrated by
Dennis Remick

Made photoready by
Mary L. Pope

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sivulliulugu Agliqiaksraq
Note to Readers

Maniixaq
Beatrice Anausuk Mouse (Iñupiat translation)

Maniixaq Nukatpialugruukman
Maniixaq Ixaqatniktuq
Atuun
Maniixablu Afatkullu Taimani
Uixgasruabruk Ibeikman Taimani
Atlabubisieiyaa
Afatkunun Uqaqtuq
Sixam Isrukjitchaajiksrafa

Beatrice Anausuk Mouse (English translation)

Maniixaq As A Boy
Maniixaq Marries
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
An Unmarried Woman Gives Birth
The Change to Come
Maniixaq Speaks to the Afatkut
Maniixaq and Ayauniq

Suzie Anibniq Stocking (Iñupiat translation)

Aglibnaitchuq
Ixafa Uqautaa Tikiumaitchuq
Napaqsrafa
Qitunbai

Suzie Anibniq Stocking (English translation)

The Old Taboos Will Be Forgotten
The Pole
His Children

Charlie Qieuban Lee (Iñupiat translation)

Iivaqsaat
Napaqsraq
Apiqpauraqtuksraq
Nunaaqqiqpauraksrablu Suli Abviq Puiruksraq
Uvluq Ittuabvia
Tuvaaqataa Nutqaqman
Sixatmun Aullaqman
Napaqsrafa
Kieuviafa
Maniixablu Afatkullu
Uqautaa Suli Immiqsuksraq

Charlie Qieuban Lee (English translation)

The Iivaqsaat
The Pole
The Big Snow
The Large City and the Whale
The Day of Rest
The Death of His Wife
The Departure to the North
The Pole
A Relative
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
Future Predictions

Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (Iñupiat translation)

Ixaqataa
Maniixablu Afatkulla: Piixaq, Ayauniq
Tautuktitkai Saffimik
Piixaq Piixxaktuq
Iknibum Iglibutikkafa
Napaqsrablu Suli Uvluq Talubnaqtuaq
Sixatmun Aullaqman
Uqautaa Atuumaruq

Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English translation)

His Wife
Maniixaq and the Afatkut: Piixaq and Ayaunibruaq
Demonstrations of the New Power
Piixaq's Disappearance
Fire-Powered Vehicles
The Pole and the Day of Reverence
Maniixaq Travels North
The Fulfillment of His Prediction
Encouragement to the Other Elders

Clara Paaniikaaluk Lee (Iñupiat translation)

Nunaaqqiqpauraksrablu Abviblu Puiruksraq
Maniixauram Ixai

Clara Paaniikaaluk Lee (English translation)

The Large City and the Whale
Maniixaq's Relatives

Nora Paaniikaaluk Norton (Iñupiat translation)

Iglibutit
Iivaqsaat

Nora Paaniikaaluk Norton (English translation)

The Skeptical Audience
The Vehicles
The Iivaqsaat
The Sabbath

Alfred Taapsuk Stone (Iñupiat translation)

Aqsivaabruglu Pakigxu Nalaunnibaak Maniixauraq
Napaqsrafa
Qixautiqabniqsuq
Iivaqsaat
Taataruafa
Sivuniksraq Uqautigigaa
Pakik
Maniixablu Afatkullu

Alfred Taapsuk Stone (English translation)

Aqsivaabruk and Pakik Meet Maniixauraq
The Pole
The Drum
The Iivaqsaat
The Inspiration of His Thoughts
Predictions
Pakik
Maniixaq and the Afatkut

Charlie Qabmak Kiana (Iñupiat translation)

Charlie Qabmak Kiana (English translation)

Frieda Anniviaq Goodwin (Iñupiat translation)

Napaqsrafa
Kafiqsieaixaq Uqaq Suli Tapinnixuktuat Aglaich
Sivuniksraq
Afatkut
Nunaaqqiqpauraksraq
Sixam Qanuqtilaaksrafa Abviq Puifanikpan
Uvluq Ittuabvia
Maniixam Ixitqusria
Afatkulla Maniixamlu Ieuusrian Qaumanba
Tautuktitkai Saffimik

Frieda Anniviaq Goodwin (English translation)

The Pole
The Strange Language and the Mysterious Letters
The Predictions
The Afatkut
The Large City
The Future After the Surfacing of the Whale
The Day of Rest
Maniixaq
The Afatkut and the Brilliant Aura
Demonstrations of the New Power

Grace Kavbie Outwater (Iñupiat translation)

Maniixam Uqaksrisaqtaa
Sivuniksraq Uqautigikkafa

Grace Kavbie Outwater (English translation)

Maniixaq's Source of Power
The Predictions

Chester Sivviq Seveck (Iñupiat translation)

Napabrafa
Aullabniieifa
Qixautaa
Qanulipayaafa Uqabigaat
Kusugam Napabrafa
Sivvim Ataalufan Uqabikkafali Tiffun
Aakagraqsiuqtuat
Tuquyumigguuq

Chester Sivviq Seveck (English translation)

The Pole
The Drum
Summary
Kusugaq's Pole
Another Prediction of the Airplane
Those Who Came in Search of a Mother
His Death
His Wife

Robert Aqqaluk Newlin (Iñupiat translation)

Sivuniksraq Uqautigigaa Ixagiplugu Sixajhieakun Uqajiksrafat
Sixam Isrukjitchaajiksrafa

Robert Aqqaluk Newlin (English translation)

The Predictions (Including the Telephone)
The End

Rachel Savibummuaq Craig (Iñupiat translation)

Itluutim Tiguabmigun Kieuviafi

Rachel Savibummuaq Craig (English translation)

Itluun's Adoptive Descendents

Elwood Uyaan Hunnicutt (Iñupiat translation)

Elwood Uyaan Hunnicutt (English translation)

Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (Iñupiat translation)

Iivvaqsaat

Charlie Aqpaliq Sheldon (English translation)

The Iivvaqsaat

Dinah Aviq Frankson (Iñupiat translation)

Uivvaqsaat

Dinah Aviq Frankson (English translation)

Tommy Masruana Lee (Iñupiat translation)

Isrummiqsuqtaa
Nuvubaq
Maniixablu Afatkullu
Paatitaat
Napaqsrafa

Tommy Masruana Lee (English translation)

The Source of His Power
The Point
Maniixaq and the Afatkut Onion Portage
The Pole

Fay Uyubaq Foster (Iñupiat translation)

Napaqsrafa
Atqa Aakauraba
Sixaavyagruavak
"Maniixam" Qanuutautilaafa
Taluqsraieeiqsuq
Sivuniksraq Uqabikkafa, Tifmisuun Aggiqqaaqman
Sivuniksraq Tikiebitchuaq Suli Uuyulibiiksraak
Nunaaqqiqpauraksraq
Abviq Puiruksraq
Paqitaksraq
Ixaqajiq

Fay Uyubaq Foster (English translation)

The Pole
His Namesake, My Sister
The Strange Land
What 'Maniixaq' Means
His Courage
The Predictions, the Airplane
The Future, the Consecutive Seasons
The Large City
The Whale
The Discovery
Relatives

Elmer Imbusriq Ballot (Iñupiat translation)

Sivuniksranik Uqabikkafa Tikimagikput
Iknibvikun Uqafa
Tifmisuutikun Uqafa
Umiam Iglibutaagun Uqafa
Napaqsraq
Taataruafa Sixami
Uvluq Ieiqtuiqsiabvik
Abviq Puisabumaruaq
Qalugluktuaq
Maniixablu Afatkullu

Elmer Imbusriq Ballot (English translation)

The Fulfillment of the Predictions
The Stove
The Airplane
The Motorboat
The Pole
The Source of His Power
The Day of Rest
The Whale
Qalugluktuaq Lake
Maniixaq and the Afatkut

Robert Nasruk Cleveland (Iñupiat translation)

Sivuniksramik Uqaaqsixbataqtuq
Afatkunie Atlauruq
Ieuich Aggiqsuksrat
Umiaq Iknibum Igliqtitafa
Sixakun Igliqtuaq
Ieuuniajhat Atlabubisiruq
Uqautaie Ixafich Immiutijhat
Arguaqtujhat Ieuich Taimani
Maniixablu Afatkullu
Uqautigikkai suli Tikiebitchut Uuyulibiiksraak
Apiqpauraqtuksraq
Nunaaqqiqpauraksraq
Abviq Piuruksraq
Nuffitchaafa

Robert Nasruk Cleveland (English translation)

Predictions
His Source of Power
The Strangers
The Boat
The Airplane
The Change of the Way of Life
The Fulfillment of the Predictions
The Skepticism of the People
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
Future Predictions, the Consecutive Seasons
The Big Snow
The Large City
The Whale
Conclusion

SIVULLIULUGU AGLIQIAKSRAQ

Maniixaurakun uvva uqaqtuat utuqqanaat imabigaich ukua makpibaat. Katilgiteamif 1978-mi ixisimakkabmiknik uqaqsimarut ieugiaktuat. NANA-tkuayaat ukua pisiplugich uvva utuqqanaat katipchababigaich Qikiqtabrufmun. Afalatiqabuurut kati'amif Savibummuamiglu Maqiugamiglu.

Anausuglu suli Imbusribou, Uyubablu, Nasrualuglu ilaagun uqallaaplutifli tara ixagikmigaich. Qanuq immiieiajhat samma aglaksimaruq Naluabmiuraaqjugu ukunani makpibaani.

Maniixauraq uvva taimea, sivuniksriqirimik pakma taiyulikkafat, ieuich nanixiqaa uqautigiraqnibaat. Uqauttutaa tamarra immixxakhuni ieuich ixafich ieuujhatni, ukpiqnaqtuq. Taimma suli immiqsuksraq uqautigikkafan ixafa sivunibmi ittuq. Ukpibigaat ieuich ieugiaktuat.

Ieuich uvva uqabikkafich taatnatun aglakjugixxu mumikjugixxu pigivut. Ijuaqsabniaqsaqtum unniie atiniqman takku utuqqanaat tamatkua uqaqtuat piiqpagitxutif ukiibabikman. Ixisimanaqtuq aglaan tamarra uqautigikkafat.

Ixafat uvva itnabniqsuaq, "Kafiqsieiabataqtugut uvva sapibeallapiaqtuamik suli tusraaraksrafatnik. Ijuaqtuksramik, ijuaqsaqtaksramik uvva uqaqtugut. Taimma kafiqsieaqsixugu savaaksramik uvva uqaqtugut." Taamna uvva piqutigiplugu ixafa sivulliuplugu aglakkikput kafiqsieaqsixxaksaqjugu.

Maniixauraq uvva taamna Naluabmiut aggiqpaurabaluaqnagich animaniqsuq Kuuvaum Kafiani. Ixai samma ieuuniaqsimarut Qalami tamaani. Aanafa Qupilbuuraq aglaan uvva taatafa atiqsiebixxakkikput. Pieasrunik nukatchiaqabniqsuq abnanik. Atifich Imbusriq, Qajhaqpak suli Sieaana. Taapkua tara sivulliabigaich ieugiaktuat ieuich pakma nunaptitni. Ilaa suli Maniixauraq ixaukkaqsimaruq nanixiqaa Siixivifmixu, Kuuvafmixu, Aalaasum paafanixu tatqakma Canada-mun aglaan. Ixafich samma aglakkaluabivut.

Pieasrunik qitunbaqabniqsuq Itluutmiglu, Uqquutamiglu ibeiqaqhuni suli Piqukpafmik paniqaqhuni. Abnaat Sixallieibmiugguuq aglaan uvva atiqsiebixxakmigikput. Taimma timikumaruq taichani Sisualifmi.

Maniixaq napaqsraqabniqsuq ataramik. Tara una napmupayaaqami saagabigaa. Nappabaqnibaa napmun inillakami. Tallimat malbubuutaatni uvluni qixxiqillagaqnibaa taamna napaqsraq aasriitai uvluvak taatna surabasrufaqani uqaaqtujhaieaqhuni. Suli qixautiqaqhuni atubaqniqsuq uqaqami taavrumani uvlumi.

Saffiagguuq ilaan afatkut saffiatnie atlauruq. Pakmakfaqtamiglu uvva taataruamieiexu uqaksrisaqtinnipxuni uqabaqniqsuq.

Suli Maniixaq iqsiieeiqsuq. Afatkuuruatguuq suqutnabinbitchai. Takkuatnunguuq taatna piunbieeipxugich itnauraababigai. Taimani iglautigilugich pisubnaitmipchaqjugich afatkut. Mamiatlutifguuq tara ieuusria pakikkaluababigaat, afatkumikkun tuqutchukjugu, qaumavagitxuni takutlaitchaqnibaat ieuusria, taatna paqitlaitchaqnibaat.

Ieugiaktaat uvva itqaumanibaat Maniixablu Ayauniblu uqaqmaknik. Ayauniq una saffiruat afatkut ixafat Siixivifmiu. Uvvagguuq, "Iixibayabiptik uvva iisukkuptik," itnabnibik Ayauniblu atlalu afatkuq. Ayaunbum tara kiunibaa, "Qanuba iisabaitei sannibutauraksraqabisiruq." Tara ieuich katfut Qikiqtabrufmi uqqibeiqsut taatnautijhaknik. Itqaumanibaat ieugiaktaat ieuich. Uvva afatkubmigun, aanbuamigun, sapibisieiyaa taatnaqami Ayauniq.

Maniixam suli tautuktinnibai ieuich saffimik, ichuktaqhunixu ammieik aurabmi. Ieuich atnibealibanbitman ichuktum unnii qieibnibaat. Aglibnagguuq piibisiruq, itnabaqnibai. Ukpibitlaitchaqnibaat. Nagligiplugich abnat ibeiuqtuallu nunaaqqiuramlu, tupqumlu kiluani suli agliebaat, Maniixaq uqabaqniqsuq aglibnaq piibisieipxugu.

Arguaqtuqpagitxugu tara taimani iglautigiraqnibaat. Afatkuunipxugu suli isrummatigiraqnibaat naaggaqaa kinnabuaqsieipxugu itnaqhutif. Itnatchieik takku nalukkafiteik uqaqhuni taimani, sua manna qanusriq piiefaan. Uvva uqabikkafi tikiumaruat itniittut.

Aquppiuraaqsieabutifguuq iglilibisirut imbum qaafagun, umiakun iknibum ixitqusrian igliqtitafagun, naagga suli sixakunguuq aquppiuraabutif iglilibisikmiut iknibum suli igliqtitafanik. Tamarra qieibivut iivarruuligaat umiat suli tifmisuutit tifmirabaliqsuat.

Iknibbuaq puunikkisiruq tupqum ixuani, sunauvva tara iknibvik pipxugu.

Aglakkisirutguuq ieuich saatuuramun qiaqqumun, sunauvva kaliikkaq.

Sixajhieakunguuq uqauraalibisirut ieuich ufasrigiikkaluabutif. Tamarra uqaqsuutitaliqsut, qieiqsittaaliqmiut sixajhieakun.

Ieuitguuq atlakat, qatiqtaanik uvieilgich ieuich, iivaqsaabutif tabiukun aggibisieipxugich uqabaqtuq. Tamarra Naluabmiut aggiqsuat qieibivut.

Ieupiatguuq ieuuniajhat atlabubisiruq. Tamatkuagguuq qatiqtaat ieuich ixitqusriatnik ieuich ixitqusrieikkisirut. Taatnatun ieuunialibisirut. Tamarra immixxakhuni taatna sivuniksrami uqautigikkafa. Sumik puuyullapiaqtut, aalbuuganbiqmiut, Naluabmiutun uqautaatun uqaliqmiut. Uvva taatnasriq uqautigimagaa.

Aglibnaibisirubbuuq. Agliqsranbiqsut tamarra ieuich. Nutaat unnii ieugiaktaat nalugaat qanuutautilaafa taavruma agliqsriohum. Taimani agliqsrabniqsut apai takku kafiqsimaitxugu iluqaan atnibeaun. Suli ukpibiplugu afatkut uqautaat. Tamarra tamanna piixxaktuq.

Uvva aasrii uqautigikkai suli itnatchich uvva tikitxaitchut.

Uvvagguuq suli taamma taavani ieuich ieuuniabalaubumif, ukiuk malbuk tuvlibiik, taimma ieuich suli atubisiyaich. Uuyulibiiksraagguuq. Uvva tautunbitchivut suli taapkuak.

Suli, nunagguuq uvva manna apigisiruq. Apiqpaurabisirubbuuq nuvukkatchiablugich napaaqtut. Taamna suli uvva atuumanbitchuq.

Nibisugvikpauraksrafat suli taimma ieuich uqautigirabigaat. Apiqpauraqpan taatnabisivaluktut suli.

Nunaaqqiqpauraksraq suli uqautigiraqnibaa Ivisaappaani. Tamatkuagguuq qatiqtaat ieuich pisuukkafat nunami paqitpan, taatnasriq nunaaqqiq taruuna nappabisiruq. Tara uvva suli tikitxaitchuq.

Nunaaqqiqpauraksraq ixianikpan, Natmaktubiamlugguuq Kuuvaumlu paafikkun, taruuna paafakkun akulibafagun abviq puigisirubbuuq. Taimma qanusriuluni puigisivaluktuq abviq.

Taatnaqqaaqhunigguuq tara taavaniafa sixam uqautigisrutlaitchaa. Aliagigaagguuq. Aglaan uvva ixafat suli ieuich uqaqtuq, ixaatnigguuq uvluq tikitkisiruq, itna uvluq aviktikkatun. Taatna taavaniafa uqautigitlaitmiyaagguuq. Qanusriuvagguuqtai taimma sivuniksraq abviq puifanikpan.

Isrumagiraksraq

Maniixaurakun uvva uqaqamif uqautigimagaat atlabuqtuaq ieuuniajhat Ieupiat, tara uqajhatun Maniixauram. Afatkuniglu, aalburuaniglu, abnaniglu ibeiuqtuanik tupqum, nunaaqqiuram kiluani, agliqsraqtuanik ieufnik, itnatchieik uqabniqsut. Puuyullaktuatun ixikkafiteik, nalukkafiteik nutaat pakma uqaqsimarut ixitchubipkabniaqjugu atlabujha ieuuniajipta. Aglaan uvva nafinnajhaieabnixugu taimani isrumatqunbitchivut agliqiruat.

Ami tara sakiqnapiabatami ieuich ieuuniabaluaqtut taimani. Ifmik ami itnatchimi ieuuniaqtuni sakiqnabumieaqtuq. Ilifisa aasrii qabagiliutiplugu ieuuniajiqtif. Naluplutif ivrumifa qabajibmik pakmatun. Aglaan itna saffipxutif, atnibeautiqpafmik piitmiut, niqipiam timigiksitlugich, kigutigiksitlugich, surabaalujhum sayaqaqtitlugich inniqsuat.

Iluqatif suli afatkut tamatkua pigiieeiabutif inbitchaluaqpaluktut. Ixafich naagga suli atnibeaqtuanik ikayuipxutiflu piraqniqsuat. Ieuich taimani ikayuutiraqniqsut avatmun, tamarra uixigaqtuallu, taataiqsuallu, suli naglifnaqtuat ikayubniuraqjugich piuraqaqamif.

Utuqqanaat suli tamarra kamagiuraaqjugixxu taimani piraqnikkafich, takku utuqqanaat sakiqnakun taatnaixixbataqtuat kamagiplugich, ami taatna kamanaqhutif.

Tamarra suapayaaq atlabullaktuq. Ixisimanaqtuq. Aasriie uvva ukunifa Maniixaurakun makpibarriuqapta, nafinnajha ieuuniajhum taimani aglafniablugu piebitchikput. Taatna tara uqajhatitun aglakkikput mumikougulu. Qanuq suli atlabujha ieuuniajhat uqabianiksimaitchuq uvani, atlani aglaa taimma uqaqamif uqabigaluaqsimaruq.

Maniixauram tara uqajhatun uvva pakma qabasrigaluaqtugut. Ieuuniajiqput atlabubaluaqtuq, tamarra Naluabmiutunlu ieuunialiqhuta, uqaliqhutalu piyaluaqtugut, aglaan sakiqnaq itchugaaqtuq. Tamarra ieuich isrumaaluum quviasruktinbibai, ieuich timigiixiqsut siibeaqtaaqtuliqpagitxutif, qaunagiuranbiqougu nibitchaqtif, ittuavaajjaliqpagitxutiflu. Tamarra naagga affugaurat pioiksrafat, nunamlu afalajha atanniqsubnialiqmiyaat atlat ieuich taavakfa. Nanixiqaa naagga miqutmiyaat nuna. Ivrumifa isrumauranbiqsut ieuich, ieulluatat taaffaum afalaliqjugixxu.

Uqabikkafi tamarra immiutillaksimarut. Ieuich ieugiaktaat qieibaat atlabujha ieuuniajipta. Ukpibigaich suli tasramma sivuniptitni ittuat, immiumanbitchuat suli.

Sua iluqaan aglanbitchaluabikput tasramma aglaan agliqilugu pikpatruf aglaktuat, ixioiksrafat uvva piqutigiplugu makpibarriuqtugut, suli piqutigiplugich uqaqtut utuqqanaat. Taimma una ieuum ijuatmun ieuuniajiksrafa isrumagiplugu uqaqtut. Sivviuraq taimea uqabaqtuq, uvvagguuq nakuuruafalu Ieupiat ieuuniajhatnie, nakuuruafalu Naluabmiut ieuuniajhatnie katillugik pikpaknik nakuutlukkayaqtuq. Taamna isrummatigilugu piyupta nakuuruq uvva. Quyanaqtusri ilipsi agliqinialiqsuani Ieupiatun. Sivutmuufurabniabumuusri.

 

NOTE TO READERS

The materials compiled in this book, Maniixaq, came from various sources, the chief source being the tape-recorded discussion on Maniixaq by the elders of the Nana Region of Alaska. These elders met during the 1978 Nana Elders Conference in Kotzebue. This conference was under the direction of Rachael Craig and Mary Schaeffer. It was funded partly by the Nana Native Corporation and the Alaska Humanities Forum.

Other sources of information came from the late Beatrice Anausuk Mouse of Noorvik, Elmer Ballot of Selawik, and Robert Cleveland of Ambler. Mrs. Mouse was first taped by Nita Towarak under the Mauneluk Teachers Making Books Program of 1976-1977 funded by Title IV Part B, and then by Angeline Newlin in 1980 for the National Bilingual Materials Development Center. Mr. Ballot recorded his own information on Maniixaq under the Mauneluk Cultural Heritage Program of 1975-1976 funded by the Johnson O'Malley Program. This program was directed by Hannah Loon. Fay Foster's information was recorded by Ruth Ramoth-Sampson in 1981, and Robert Cleveland's account was recorded at Black River in 1965 by the late Don Charles Foote. Mr. Foote was working on the "Human Geographical Studies in Northwestern Arctic Alaska: The Point Hope and Upper Kobuk River Projects, 1965" when he made the recording by Robert Cleveland. Mr. Foote's recordings were made available to the Center by the University of Alaska Archives in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Maniixaq is the name of a man that is held in very high regard by the older Iñupiat Eskimos of the Northwest Arctic. He was more commonly known as Maniixauraq, and to some of the elders in the area, he was an Eskimo prophet. They speak of him with reverence and admiration. Many believe him and in the fulfillment of his prophecies in this day and age.

This book presents the information which the Center has on Maniixaq transcribed and translated exactly as the elders have given it. There has been no attempt made to edit any of the discussions as many of the contributors have passed away. The materials are presented here for you, the reader, to read and reach your own conclusions about Maniixaq. You will find the accounts to be repetitious, but as you read each variant of Maniixaq's activities and teachings, you will acquire new information which will add to your knowledge of the whole subject.

There may be other information on Maniixaq which has not been recorded and included in this book such as the lost cassette tape on Maniixaq filled by Susie Stocking. It is hoped that this book will inspire you to search for the rest of the missing information. For now, however, we would like to follow the admonishment of one of the elders, "We are discussing a complicated subject . . . It should be presented in a clear and easily understandable manner so that everyone will know," by presenting below a summary of the major events pertaining to Maniixaq. For more detailed explanations of each event, read the accounts that are in the body of this book:

SUMMARY OF MAJOR EVENTS

Name:

Maniixaq or Maniixauraq

Birthdate:

Early 1800's prior to 1830—This estimation is based on the fact that Robert Cleveland, who was born in 1884, and Beatrice Mouse who was born in 1890 had actually seen him in their early childhood years.

Birth Place:

Upper Kobuk River Area, probably close to Qala, a place above the present village site of Kobuk.

Father:

Unknown—No mention of him, or his name, was ever made in any of the accounts.

Mother:

Qupilbuuraq—probably a woman from Qala.

Brothers:

None.

Sisters:

Imbusriq, Qapujuk, Sieaana

Married:

The name is not known. She was Sixallieibmiu, 'one who lived beyond the mountains to the north' around Noatak area.

Children:

Uqquutaq - a son
Itluun - a son
Piqukpak - a daughter

Characteristics:

Boyhood:

He was helpful to his mother.

He learned from his mother how to make a sod house, set a snare, etc.

He was a very good listener and he listened carefully to nature and the songs of a little bird in a quiet, peaceful spot where he set his snares.

He received inspiration and knowledge from what he referred to as his "source of knowledge" of his "grandfather" on high.

He spent a lot of time listening to his "source of knowledge" and learning from it.

He became an excellent and a successful hunter, and game of all sizes and types was easy for him to obtain.

Manhood:

He took very good care of his family.

He was fearless of the shaman's power and often times rebuked them.

He purposefully broke the shaman's taboos which governed and enslaved the lives of the people.

He set aside one particular day in every seven day period to rest and to talk about things that were of great importance to him. Most of these things pertained to inevitable future events that would change the lifestyle of the Eskimo people.

He traveled from place to place.

The shamans felt threatened by him.

He had a drum which he beat and sang.

He was often subjected to ridicule, but he had great patience.

He was thought of by some people to be going insane

He was regarded as being powerful with his source of power being different from other shaman's sources of power.

He was considered strange because he sometimes spoke in a language that no one understood; he slept on willow branches, he frequently washed and took a bath, and he carried a certain pole all the time and when he attached something to it every seven days, this was his day of rest.

He traveled widely, and wherever he went, he would speak of the things that would happen in the future to the lives of the people.

Death:

UnknownManiixaq reportedly left the Kobuk River area from a place called Tunnuuraq. He headed north, perhaps through Anaktuuvak, and on to Barrow and Canada. According to Jean Tardis (Kasaun) of Barrow who is an adopted relative of Maniixaq, Maniixaq was buried somewhere on the trail to Fort Delta shortly after he left Barrow. No one knows the time. In another account, Maniixaq was quoted as having said that his body would not lie in the ground, and that he would not die and be found on earth.

Prophecies that have been fulfilled to date:

  1. Fire-powered boats that would travel on both water and sky—referring to aircraft and motorized boats.
  2. Fire will be contained in the houses—referring to stoves.
  3. Thin birch bark on which to write—referring to paper.
  4. The coming of a different kind of people with light skin and light hair—referring to the coming of the caucasians.
  5. The taboos imposed by the shamans will no longer be kept—referring to the fact that the strict observance of certain activities would no longer be required nor perceived as being necessary for the health, welfare, and happiness of the people.
  6. The lifestyle of the Iñupiat would be dramatically changed—referring to how life would be easier because of new technologies which the new people would bring to them.
  7. The shamans would lose their power—referring to the fact that no one will be practicing shamanism today.
  8. The light will come in the form of the word—this is often interpreted as the coming of Christianity.

Prophecies that are yet to be fulfilled:

  1. The two consecutive seasons—the people believe these will be two consecutive winters.
  2. The big snowfall which will have a level that will reach the tops of the spruce trees.
  3. The famine.
  4. The discovery of something precious in the ground of the Upper Kobuk area near the mouth of the Redstone River which the newcomers (the caucasians) will value.
  5. The subsequent establishment of a large city in this same area as a direct result of the discovery of the precious element.
  6. The surfacing of a whale in the Upper Kobuk area.
  7. The occurrence of a day that would appear to be split in half.

Whenever Maniixaq mentioned this last prophecy, he became despondent. When asked what would follow after that day, he refused to discuss it. Some people felt that he had no knowledge of what would follow, and others believed that he was more pessimistic and probably felt very apprehensive of what the future held for all the people and that was why he did not talk about it much.

A Word of Caution

Please remember when you read the accounts in this book that the contributors were speaking exclusively of Maniixaq and the particular aspects of Eskimo life which were to be affected by his prophecies. Do not assume that oppression and fear was everyone's lot or that all shamanistic powers were evil. Some shamans served mainly as healers, and there were very good cultural activities carried out by the people as a whole. These activities included the sharing of food, the assistance given to the needy, the widows, the orphans, and the aged, and the great respect awarded to the elders because of their age, their knowledge and experience in surviving in a harsh, and often hostile, arctic environment.

It was not our intention to portray the early Ieupiaq lifestyle as being all dismal. We have merely given you what the elders have recorded concerning the changes that Maniixaq predicted will take place. Other changes experienced by the Iñupiat are not mentioned here. They have been discussed, however, by the elders under such topics as the "Process of Cultural Change" which we hope to get printed in book form in the near future.

It is good to keep in mind Maniixaq's prophecy of life getting easier to live in our day and age due to the advancements of technology, but it is better to think also of the results of living this easier life: the deterioration of good health due to unbalanced diet, lack of exercise, the drinking of alcoholic beverages because of the availability of increased stress-related activities and increased leisure time. There are also the problems related to the increased exploitation and pollution of the land. We must consider these things very carefully and try to influence for the better the changes that affect our lives.

Maniixaq made his predictions and some of these, according to the elders, have been fulfilled during their life here on this planet. Others of Maniixaq's predictions are expected to be fulfilled within the lifetime of this generation and future generations. It is the wish of the elders that the younger people will strive, not only to understand Maniixaq's predictions and their implications, but to learn about the good qualities of both cultures. This knowledge in turn should enable everyone to live a well integrated and satisfying life.

The following accounts are listed under the name of the contributor. Subheadings are given for each account for no other reason than to facilitate the reading of the material. We hope that you will enjoy reading this book on Maniixaq, a man full of compassion for his people, and regarded as a prophet of God by them.

Ruth (Tatqavie) Ramoth-Sampson

Tupou (Qipuk) L. Pulu

Selawik, Alaska

Anchorage, Alaska

 

Continue...


Language Index     Iñupiat Dictionary     Iñupiaq Spellchecker     Iñupiaq Font 

 

Alaskool Footer

Alaskool Central | Alaskool Topics | Curriculum | Places | What's New | Alaskool Resources | Links | About Alaskool | Guestbook | Search | Contact Alaskool

Copyright 1998-2004, UAA-ISER. Individual copyrighted materials on this site are used with permission from the author or copyright holder and are provided for educational and informational purposes only.

This site has graciously been supported by the Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage, First Alaskans Foundation, CIRI Foundation, Alaska Humanities Forum, and U.S. Department of Education.
Alaskool is developed and maintained and hosted at
Institute of Social and Economic Research
University of Alaska Anchorage
3211 Providence Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99508 USA
(907) 786-7710