..Back To Maniixaq (4)
(Uumifali uvva nuksiteanun uqaaqtuallafniqsuq Nasrualuk Don Foote-num uqaqtitmani August, 1965-mi Imabluktumi. U of A Archives-kutnie uvva uqabikkafi nuksiteanun pipxugich aglakkivut, mumikjugixxu aasrii makpibarriuqjugich).
Robert Nasruk Cleveland(English Translation)
Uqaaqtuutigillafniabiga ieufni maani ixagikkaqput, uvva sivuniksramik, ieuich tautuaksrafatnik sivuniksramik, uqaqtuaq. Taamna uvva ieuk atiqaqtuq Maniixamik. Maniixabbuuq. Uvva taamna uvafa ixagigiga. Aanaa aanafan aniqatigigaa, taamna afutaupluni Maniixaq. Uvva aasrii taatna sivuniksramik uqaqtuq, uqabniqsuq uqautigikkafat tusraagiga. Uvva taimani mikiffabma uqabniqsuq imma. Uvva tautuksimagaluabiga, "Tara taamna," itnanbitchiga. Uvva maakfa aullabisipxuni ukii'apta kanani Ivisaappaani, itna atiqakkafatni nunaaqqimi, tara ukiisuiqsaabuknaqhuni inniqsuaq. Tara tarakfa aullabuknaqtuq naaggaqaa ukiitqikkaluaqpa nani imma, ufavafagun imma taavruma tautukkasrugikkabma aullaqsimaruq. Maniixaq, taataruaba uvafa.
Uvva itna uqautigirabigaat itna uqaaqsixbatabnipxugu. Uvvagguuq ieuich aggibisirut amakfa kivaknam tufaanie. Aggibisirut samuuna tabiukun iivaqsaabutif. Uvvagguuq ieuich tautukkisirut ieufnik taatnatchieik. Imma sivunibmi ittuq. Itnagguuq uqaaqsixbataqtuq. Ieuich ivrumifa sumik nalupmipchaqjugich. Nani ieufnik nalupmipchaqjugich.
Makunakfali afatkiqiruanie, taatna afatkubuqhutif, taatna afatkiqiruanie atlauruq. Taatnatuntuuq aglaan itkaluaqtuq, taatnatuntuuq surabijha itkaluaqtuq, aglaa atlauruq. Sumik itna makunifa sunik piitchuq. Itna aullatriqabuni sunik piitchuq. Taatna aglaan ieuk nipijhieam, uqajhieam uqautiplugu, tamanna uqajhieaq taatna tusraakkani, taatna ieufnun uqautiginibaa.
Uvvagguuq uqaaqsixbataqami taatna taimma ieuich qatiqtaat, tasramuuna tabiukun iivaqsaabutif maani tautukkisieipxugich Kuuvafmi itna uqaaqsixbama, ieuich qatiqtaat taatna tamaufa ixikpata. Uvvagguuq aasrii ieuich tamatkunatun taamakfa qatiqtaatun ieuktun ieuunialixxapiabutif, ieuuniaqasriutigisirut unnii. Unnii tamatkunatun ixixutif, atlabubuni Ieupiat ieuuniajhat.
Uqautaie Ixafich Immiutijhat
Taatna uvva uqautigikkafat tusraagiga naalaktuababigiga. Tara taataruabma Maniixam uqautaa. Uvva aasrii pakma tavarra tikitman uqautaa, tavarraliqaa uqautigikkafa, itnalibikput uvva pakma. Tavarra uqautiginiuraabaluababigiga, suli suli tamatkua nutaat taipchunatitun naalabniuravigxugu itna pitxaitchaat. Uvva aasrii recorder-mun ixisukjugu taatna pirabikkaba uvva ixigiga. Taimma ieuich tusraagisiyaat taatna ixitqusria Maniixam. Qanuq ixipxuni taatna uqautiqajha tamatkunifa. Uvva tamatkua uqautaie ixafich immiutiplutif, taatnatun ixiruat uvva ukpiqnaqtut. Taimma suli tikiumanbitchuat taatna ixitqusriksrat uqautigikkafi suli uvva, tikiumanbitchut suli. Qapsich taimma uvva ixivat? Immixxakhuni tamanna iluqani uqautigikkafa.
Uvva imaitchuat, tikiebitchuat suli qapsiinbiqsut. Tara uqaaqtuutigiuraallakkisigitka, suli tamanna qanuq ixitqusria taimani uqaaqsixbataqman taatna uqautigipsaaqtuaburaallaglagu. Itna uvva uqautigirabigaat.
Arguaqtujhat Ieuich Taimani
Itna tamatkunifa uqaaqsikman sivuniksranik, ieuich tautuaksrafiteik marra tikiumaruanik uqaaqsixbataqman, ixaie tamatkua kinnabuaqsieipxugu, suni uvva nani atuqtuksranik, itna uqaaqsieipxugu tamatkua ixaie, taatna itnabumieaieeipxugu sixa uqabaqniqsulli. Itnabumieaitchubbuuq, itna. Uvvagguuq kinnabuaqsisuknaqtuq, "Kinniqipluni uqalibuknaqtuq taatnatchieik uvva," itnagguuq uqautigirabigaat.
Unniie uvva tuqutchukjugu afatkubmikkun piraqnibaat. Taatna ieuktubaqniqsuat taimani. Taatna afatkut makua ixamiknik ieuknianik, makunifa afatkuixanik unnii, afatkunik unnii, taatna tuquttautiraqniqsuat. Ieuaqtubaqniqsuat taatna. Taavrumagguuq pixgitchaa itnautiplutif, itnaqjugich afatkut pirabigaich.
Uvva aasrii Maniixaq taatna uqaaqsikman, tamatkua afatkut tuqutchukjugu uqaqhutif, afatkut piyaluabaqnibaat paqitchitxaieeibaat. Ieuusrianik, ieuusria pakiksabaluababigaat ieuusriitchuq. Taamna uvva Maniixaq una taatnabaluabaqnibaat, ixisimagaluabai taatnaqtini, taatna ilaan ieuabuguni, ieuaqtubuguni itnatlaieeiqsuq.
Uvva aglaa ixaatni afatkuk Siixivifmiuk, atillak Tuuyublu, Ayauniblu Qikiqtabrufmigguuq taatna ieuknianik taluqsraqtitchiugalgieeiqsuk. Afatkuuplutik afatkubmikkun taatna iqsisaaqtuaqjugich ieuich. Ieuich taatna qanutlaieeikkafich, taatna nipliutinianbitpagitxugich afatkut taimani. Ixitchubijjamnixi uvva taatna ieuich ieuuniabniqsuat. Taavakfa aggiqsaagaqsiruk taapkuak Ayauniblu Tuuyublu, Siixivifmiuk. Uvva aasrii Maniixam tautukjugik taavva sieiqsraaqtuak tumitchaakun pavuuna. Taimani tumitchiaqabniqsuat Qikiqtabrufmi, pavuuna tapqam kiluagun, tamauna ivikun.
Taatnatchimi pisruktuak tasruibiiksitlutik sivubafibeibik. Itna aasrii uqautiplugik, tuqjuqjugik, "Ayauniiq, Tuuyuuq, iixibukkuptik uvva iixibayabiptik." Itnabnibik sivubafiqougik nutqaqtinnibik, sivuaknun ixipxuni. "Iixibukkuptik uvva iixibayabiptik."
Taapkuak iglaraabniqsuk. Ixaqataan aasriie uvva nipliutinibaa, "Iixiqsaqpafa uvva abaqatiuf, uvafa sannibutauraksraqabaluaqtufa. Ilvixxi taimma suvich?" Itnaqami taamna nipliebieeiqsuq. Taamna aglaa taatna Ayauniq una uqabniqsuq. Taatnasribaieiqsuq afatkufnik takanani uqautigirabigaat taatna. Iqsiitchuq. Taimea afatkunik uunniie iqsiitchuq. Afatkum tuqutlaitchaa taimea Maniixaq.
Uqautigikkai suli Tikiebitchut Uuyulibiiksraak
Uvva aasrii uqautigikkai suli itnatchich uvva tikitxaitchut. Ukiugguuq uvva, taamma taavani ieuich ieuuniabaluabmif, ukiuk malbuk tuvlibiik, taimma ieuich suli atubisiyaich. Taimma, qanuq taimma illutik taapkuak uvva isrummatigiruni itnatchik auraqsabatabaluabuni, kieumun siqieiq aullabuni aglaan, taatna ukiutqikkisivaluktuq. Itna isrummatiknaqtuk. Ukuigguuq malbuk uuyulibiik tautukkisiyaich ieuich. Uvva suli tikitxaitchuk. Uvva tautunbitchivut suli taapkuak.
Suli itna, nunagguuq uvva manna apigisiruq. Apiqpaurabuni apigisiruq. Uvva taamna apioiksrafa uqautigikmatruf, nalupqinaibxugu tusraamaitchiga. Aglaan uvva nuvukkatchiablugich suttai, napaaqtut naagga iebich? Naliabiiksut, nalupqinaibxugu taamna kisuutilaafa itna uqautigitilaafa kafiqsimaitchiga. Napaaqtut pivalukkai. Iebich pisaqpata ieuqabumieaitchuq, suqabumieaitchuq, ieuuruaqabumieaitchuq ijuamik. Napaaqtut pivalukkai isrummatiknaqtuq. Ukpiqnaqhuni, iluqani uqautigikkafa immiqhuni.
Taimma suli taamna pianikpan, sukpantai, pigaluaqnagu, kanuuna Natmaktubiam paafagun nunaaqqiqpaurabbuuq ixigisiruq. Takanuuna nunaaqqiqpauraliubisirut. Taimma nunaaqqiqpauraq taamna ixiruksraq uqautigigaa. Taimma tamatkuagguuq qatiqtaat ieuich, taamakfa iivaqsaaqtuat, takanani Natmaktubiam paafan, tamaani qanifani, suanitai, pisuukkafat nu-name paqillugu, taatnasriq takanufa nappabisiruq. Nunaaqqiqpauraq. Tara uvva suli tikitxaitchuq.
Aglaa kanna aullaqniiyaat tutitchiafie ukpibiplugu nunaaqqiqpauraq takanufa nappaqtuksraun tusraagaluaqamitruf uqautigikkaba, uqautigirabaqjugu pitchaba, tamatkua ieuguqqamiat tututchiafie kanna aullaqniiyaat. Takanna Ivisaappaat, Ivisaappaatigun, Natmaktubiam paafagun taruuna, Ivisaappaanik atiqaqtuq taimakfa qafa. Taimmagguuq paqitkisiyaat. Paqitchumitruf nunaaqqiqpauraq aullaqniigisiruq takanuuna. Taimma uvva kaapamik paqitkaluaqtut, qanifani inbitchuq. Uvanisiksuq. Samma tamaani patlifani itkisuknaqtuq paqitaksraq taimea uqautigikkafa taavruma sivuniksramik uqaqtuam.
Tasramma taamna nunaaqqiqpauraq tarani ixianiguni, tasramma ieuich tautuaksrafat, taavani ieuuniaqtuat, uqautigigaa suli. Natmaktubiamlugguuq Kuuvaumlu paafikkun, taruuna paafakkun akulibafagun abviq puigisiruq. Ieuich aasrii tamatkua tautuglugu puiruaq abviq. Uvva ieuich taamna ukpibinbitchaat ieugiaktaat. Taatnasriq taavruma uqautigikkafa, abviq piuruksraun. Qanusriuluni una puigisiva abviq? Ikkatmiuq. Abvibich makua itiruami aulaalugaqtut. Qanuq ixixuni uvvatai puigisieiqpa taruuna? Aglaa sua iluqani imaqaqhuni uqajha ukpiqnaqtuq. Taimma qanusriuluni puigisivaluktuq abviq.
Taatna tara uqautigikkai iluqatif immixxakkaluaqtut, tara taapkua qanuq taimma pigisivat uvva. Uvva suli tikiebitchut ukiuglu uuyulibiiksraak, apiqpaktuksrablu nuvukkatchiablugich naliufittai napaaqtullu iebixxu. Suli nunaaqqieiksatlaitchut. Aglaan uvva tutitchiafi takanna aullaqniirut ukpibiplugu taamna, taimea afugaatchauram uqajha imaqaqman. Uqautai immiqmata. Abviq suli. Uvva sisamat nalupqinaixat.
Imma uvafa tusraamaitchuknaqjugich, imma ieuich ixafich tusraaruat, imma sua suli taimma uqautiginbitchiga. Uvva taapkuali tusraamakkatka uqautigikmatruf Maniixam ixitqusria. Uvva suli nalugitka imma suttai. Aglaa tavarra uqautai taimani sumik maani Naluabmiunik piiefaan. Naluabmiunik nani tusraamaiefabmif uqautigikkafa immiqsuq. Tavarra umiallu uqautigikkai, iknibum afalataksrautai, tifmisuutillu iknibum afalataksrautai, tifmiruat paani, uvva taatna uqautai immiqsut.
Uvva taamna isrummatigiruni God-mun taatna pipxugu isrummatigirabigiga uvafa. Takku tuunbaum makua ixitqusrii, ixitqusriqaqtitafi ieuich, taatna afatkuaqtuat, ieufnik ieukkutiksriruat, tuqutqatairuat ieufnik taatna pigaluaqtut, taamna taatnasribanbitchuq. Taatna taatnaqtitchixuni piebitchuq. Uvva ukpiqnaqtuq Afaayyutmun afalatlugu, taamna isrummatiknaqtuq. God uqabvigiplugu, ixitqusriksramik uqaqtitchuknabaa. Taatnali uvva isrummatigiplugu tammairaixiuraabiga taatna uqajha. Taatna uqautiksruabiga makunufa.
Uqabumieaffabma suli uqautiksruaburaabiga pakma taimma nuksiteanun. Uqalguixiaqsi'ama napmusraabruk ieuujiksraq inbiaqsikman. Naalaktuabisiyaat taamna uqautigikkaba. Taimma tutitchaama naalaktuabulibumitruf naalaktuabisiyaat, maani unnii Kuuvafmi, unnii taavani uassaami naalakkisisuknabaat ieuich. Uvva nuksiteanun sivuniqsieiaqtim Naluabmium tikiumapluni uvva uqaqtitkaafa tamatkunifa utuqqabnik, utuqqaich ieuuniajhatnik, unipchaanik suniktai, taatna.
Uvva taamna uqaaqtuutigikkaba Maniixaq ixuabaluabiga atlanik tamatkunifa, aglaa ixisimanaqtuq. Uqajhaieabinbisafieik Maniixam uqaqtufa uvva ixafiteik. Taimma kafiqsieaqtuq. Taimma kafiqsigisiyaa ieuum tamatkua naalaktuabumigich. Taatna uvva Maniixaq taamna uqautaumaruq.
Uvva tautuksimagiga taamna taataruaba, aanaa aanafan aniqatiginibaa taamna. Taamna Maniixaq. Uvva afayuqaaqabniqsuat taapkua, aanaa aanafa, Qupilbuuramik aanaqabniqsut. Taamna uvva Qupilbuuraq aanaruafa Itluutim. Aglaan uvva taatafa kisuuqausriebitchiga, tusraamagaluakkaba puuyuqjugu uvva uqautigikmatruf. Taatafa uqautiginbitchiga. Aanafa aglaan uvva Qupilbuuramik aanaqaqtitabiga taapkua uvva, Maniixaq una pieasrunik abnanik aniqatiqaqhuni, taamna afutnunituabiplugu. Sunivaani taimma itpa, tamauna qitqatni itpaluktuq taapkua. Valuk ami. Tasramma taatna taapkua ixitqusriat ittuaq. Taatna uvva taamna ixitqusria uqautigirabigikput. Uvva aglaa Maniixaq una takanani Ivisaappaani ukiikman, ukiisuiqsaaqman sukmantai, tautukkaluabuknabiga, uumifaanbitchufa. Tara uqaqmata tarani ixisimarabaqtufa. Taatna tarani ukiisuiqsaaqman Maniixaq.
Tara tarakfa aullaqtuq. Tatqakma Utqiabvifmun tatqaufabniqsuq. Uvva aasrii ieuguqama uqautigigaat tatqakma tatqaani taamna Maniixaq ibeiqaqhuni Itluutmik atilifmik, tamaani Kuuvafmi ieuguqtitafanik. Nakie taimma una nuliaqhuni, Sixallieibmiunie nakietai, taatna qitunbieikkafa abnaqtif tuquniqsuq. Uvva aasrii taamna Itluun ieuguqtitlugu afutaata taavruma uuma Maniixam. Uvva taatnasriq uqaaqtuutigigiga taatna ixitqusrixik. Taataruaba uvafa. Tara ukpibillapiabiga uqajhi afaayyutmun uqautiplugu sivuniksramik uqaqabasrugirabigiga taatna. Taatniipiaqhuni piuq. Marra immixxakhuni taatna sivuniksrami uqautigikkafa. Sumik unnii aalbuuganbiqsut. Sumik puuyullapiaqtut, Naluabmiutun uqautaatun uqaliqsut. Uvva taatnasriq uqautigigiga.
Robert Nasruk Cleveland (English translation)
This is Nasruk (Robert Cleveland) speaking at the mouth of the Black River. I am going to speak about a person who lived in this area and spoke of the future. His name was Maniixaq. I am related to him. He was my maternal grandmother's brother. I have heard people speak about his predictions. I was but a young boy when he was still around. Although I did see him, I did not say, "That is the one." We spent a winter at the mouth of Ambler River where the village is now located and that must have been where he spent his last winter too. I think he left from there, or maybe, he spent another winter there, but he left not long after I had seen him. Maniixaq was my great uncle (although in Ieupiaq Eskimo, the same word is used for grandfather or great uncle).
These are some of the predictions he is reported to have made. He said that people would come from the east. They would come by way of the ocean rounding points and bends. He said that the Ieupiat would see such people. This was to be in the future. This is how he began his predictions. He made his predictions in spite of the fact that the people did not know of anything, or any people, beyond their limited knowledge of the world.
His Source of Power
He was different from those who had become afatkut and summoned spirits. Although he demonstrated his powers as they did and did things (such as using a drum and singing) as they did, he was different. He did not have material objects such as amulets, fetishes or charms to carry constantly as the other afatkut did. All he did was tell the people about what he heard from an unknown source. It was a still small voice which directed his thoughts and speech.
It is said that he began his predictions by saying that the Ieupiat people would see white-skinned people who would travel up the Kobuk River after rounding a peninsula along the ocean. Although he said this, no one believed him at the time.
He predicted further that after seeing this strange people, they would see a boat travelling up the Kobuk River. He said that people who lived in the future would see a fire powered boat which would not have to be pushed, pulled or rowed by anyone.
After seeing the boat travel on the water, it would then be seen travelling through the sky. This vehicle which travelled through the sky would also be powered by fire. He did not call it an airplane or anything. He merely described it as a fire powered vehicle which travelled through the sky. He, too, wondered what it was. All he knew was that it did travel across the sky and that is what he told the people.
The Change of the Way of Life
After the initial sighting of this strange vehicle in the sky, the people would see increased numbers of both vehicles all over the area. He said that when the white-skinned people came and lived among the Ieupiat, the people would no longer shun others for fear of contamination. Taboos would no longer be adhered to. They would even drink water from the same container as the women (such as a woman who was in her menstrual period, for in those days, she had her own container from which to drink). The women would no longer have to live by the rules of the afatkut. Girls reaching puberty would not even have to live in a separate shelter, which they had to do in those days, regardless of whether it was winter or summer. In fact, he said that the girls would reach puberty unnoticed by people. They would not have to have their own water containers and a woman in her period would be unnoticed.
He said that people would change. Their way of life would change as they began to live like the white men who were to come. It was inevitable that people would adopt the lifestyles of the strangers. He predicted that the lifestyle of the Ieupiat would change dramatically and that the people would live just like the white strangers who were to come.
The Fulfillment of the Predictions
I heard people speak of the predictions made by Maniixaq, who was my great uncle, my grandmother's brother. Now, as we see the predictions being fulfilled, we are able to look back and realize what he meant. Although I have attempted to relate these predictions, the young people of today act like the skeptical people of Maniixaq's day and do not take the predictions seriously. They do not bother to listen carefully. Because of this, I have wished to record it into a tape recorder, which I am doing now. People will someday hear about Maniixaq and about the way he was. They will hear about how his predictions have been fulfilled. Many of them were fulfilled and are proof of the validity of his predictions that he made which have not yet transpired. I wonder how many are left? So many of his predictions have been fulfilled.
There are only a few left which have not yet been fulfilled. I am going to tell about them and I will also tell about how life was in the days when Maniixaq made his predictions. This is how they told it.
The Skepticism of the People
When Maniixaq began his predictions of what would happen in the future, the people around him who heard these thought that he was insane. They wondered how and where such things could ever happen and were very skeptical of him, even to the point of ridiculing him. "It will never happen like that," they said. They said that he was surely becoming insane, "It is quite likely that he has begun to speak of such things because he is becoming insane."
Maniixaq and the Afatkut
The afatkut went as far as desiring to kill him through their helping spirits. In those days, they killed people that way. The afatkut even killed their own relatives, regardless of whether or not the person had a helping spirit or not. Murder by the afatkut was not uncommon. "That afatkuq did it," was often heard as the afatkut told each other.
As Maniixaq began his predictions, he was just another target for the afatkut so they decided to kill him. However, they could not find his spirit. Wishing to kill him, they searched for his spirit but could never find it. In spite of their actions, although Maniixaq was aware of their attempts to kill him, he never said that he wanted to kill anyone in retaliation.
However, there is one incident concerning Maniixaq and the afatkut that is remembered by many people. It is said that once two afatkuk from Selawik named Tuuyuq and Ayauniq were in Kotzebue intimidating people with their afatkuq powers. In those days, the people never said or did anything to the afatkut, for that was how great their influence was over them. This was how they were as I, myself, became aware of life around me as a growing boy. Well, as it was, they had arrogantly sauntered by. Maniixaq saw them as they walked along a path. In those days, there was a path through the grassy meadow behind the lagoon in Kotzebue.
They were walking arm in arm on such a path when Maniixaq met them. He called out to them, "Ayauniq, Tuuyuq, if I wished to swallow you, I could." He had stopped in front of them as he said this.
The two broke out in raucous laughter. Turning to the other, one of them replied, "Hey cousin, if he attempted to swallow me, I have something to block his passage. What about you?" His companion did not reply. However, this was Ayauniq's reply. This incident of what Maniixaq said to the two afatkuk in Kotzebue is often told. He was not afraid. He was not even afraid of the afatkut. The afatkut could not kill Maniixaq.
The Consecutive Seasons
Some of his predictions have not yet been fulfilled. He predicted that someday in the future, the people would experience two consecutive seasons. When I think about what these two will be, it seems to me that they will be two consecutive winters with one winter coming to an end, and just as summer approaches, the direction of the sun will be reversed and instead of the days becoming longer, they will grow shorter and it will be winter again. That is how it seems possible to me. He predicted that people would experience two consecutive seasons. They have not yet been experienced. We have not yet seen them.
The Big Snow
Another one is that there will be much snow. I did not hear that prediction clearly enough. It is said that it will snow so much that the snow level will reach either the spruce tree tops or the mountain tops. It seems that the snow level is to reach the tree tops instead of the mountain tops; otherwise there will be no survivors. It is mostly likely, and more reasonable to believe, that it will one day snow as high as the tops of the spruce trees. All his predictions are believable because many of them have been fulfilled.
The Large City
Another prediction is either to follow, or precede, the consecutive seasons and the big snow is his prediction of the establishment of a large city at the mouth of the Ambler River. He said that the white-skinned people who came rounding a peninsula through the ocean would find something they value somewhere, possibly near, the mouth of the Ambler River and this would result in the establishment of a large city. This has not happened.
However, the establishment of the village of Ambler has begun. His relatives, who are the descendants of Maniixaq's sisters, believed me when I related this prediction, and have established the present village of Ambler. They built it at the mouth of Ambler River and named it Ivisappaat, meaning 'mouth of the Redstone River.' It is said that they will find something. Once that is found, the large city will come into existence. Copper has been found, but it is not close by. It is further up the river of Kobuk. I think that the thing they will find which the predictor spoke of will be found close (to the mouth of the Ambler River).
He also predicted another happening that the later generations would witness after the establishment of the city. He predicted that a whale would surface at the fork of the Kobuk and Ambler Rivers. The people at the time would witness the surfacing of this whale. Many skeptics find it difficult to believe this prediction about such a whale surfacing at this spot. What kind of a whale would surface? It is shallow. Whales travel in the deep oceans. What form is it to take to surface there? However, since his predictions have been fulfilled, it is only reasonable that the rest will also happen. It is believable. It shall surface in whatever form it is to take.
His other predictions have been fulfilled so the other two will inevitably be fulfilled in whatever form they will be in. The two consecutive seasons and the big snow where the snow level will reach either the mountain or tree tops are also yet to come. The large city has yet to materialize although the descendants of his relatives, believing the words of this old man and realizing the past fulfillment of the other predictions, have established a village. The other is the whale surfacing. There are four distinct ones yet to happen.
There may be more things that some people heard about which I did not mention because I did not hear about them. These are the ones which I did hear concerning the life and predictions of Maniixaq. There are others which I did not know about but these are the predictions he made before any strange people ever came in large numbers, or before the Ieupiat had ever seen white people. Yet, they have been fulfilled. We see the evidence in the boats and airplanes which are now in abundant existence in our areas. He predicted their arrival, describing them as fire-powered vehicles.
When I think about him, I come to the conclusion that he was directed by God. After all, he did not act as the afatkut did, abusing and murdering the people, like the devil does and acts. He did not cause such acts. Instead, it is believable that he was directed by God. It seems that God was the source of his predictions. Because of what I have come to believe, I try not to have the predictions forgotten. I often tell it to people here.
As I am still able to speak, I tell it now to a tape recorder because it seems that my life will not go on for much longer. People will listen to what I have said. It will be heard by my descendants if they have a desire to listen, by people in the Kobuk River area, and maybe even somewhere in the outside states. This Naluabmiu researcher (referring to researcher Don Foote) has come in search of information, of life in the old days and for legends and has caused me to tell what I do know and remember.
Although I have added other miscellaneous information to the story of Maniixaq, it is obvious. Although I have not been quoting him directly, this is also obvious. People will understand what I mean as they listen to the tape. That is how Maniixaq is spoken of.
I actually saw my great uncle, who was my maternal grandmother's brother. Qupilbuuraq was their mother. She was Itluun's grandmother. However, I have not understood who his father was. I have heard him mentioned but I cannot remember his name. All I know is that his mother was Qupilbuuraq and that he had three sisters. He was the only son. Whether he was the oldest or was born in between the birth of his sisters, I do not know. That is what is said about the life of Maniixaq. I must have seen him when he spent his last winter at the mouth of the Redstone River but I could not really distinguish who he was. However I do remember people talking about him.
He left from there and went towards Barrow. It is said that earlier, he had married a woman from somewhere up north and after having children, she had died. Maniixaq had a son named Itluun, whom he raised by himself. This is the kind of man I have spoken about. He was my taataruaq or great uncle. I strongly believe that his predictions were inspired by God because it is so obvious. They have been fulfilled. People are no longer aware of women when they have their menstrual periods any more (whereas in those days, they were forced to be known because the people were afraid of being contaminated from her as they were instructed by the afatkut). Today, people are not aware or knowledgeable of the old ways and speak the language of the Naluabmiut. This is what I mean about the predictions having been fulfilled.
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