Note on Internet Version of Maniixaq:
Alaskool is pleased to help share this important example of cultural preservation which, unfortunately, is no longer in print. Maniixaq is known by people of the NANA region as a prophet sent from God. It is hoped students will take initiative to learn about who Maniixaq was and of his important predictions about the future of the Ieupiaq people of Northwestern Alaska.
Joe Ballot, an Ieupiaq from Selawik, was the primary language consultant who produced the sound files for Alaskool's online version of the book Maniixaq. We were fortunate to have such a highly qualified person participate in the making of the sound files. Joe headed up a non-profit corporation in Kotzebue, and has extensive experience translating the bible from English to Ieupiaq. Joe provided proficient knowledge and awareness of the intricacies in keeping the context of what was said by the Elders when making the sound files. Joe was very quick picking up computer literacy skills needed to produce the sound files. To hear the sound files it will be necessary to either have or download the RealPlayer.
Iñupiat transcriptions and proofreading by
English translations by
Made photoready by
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Source of His Power
Maniixaurakun uvva uqaqtuat utuqqanaat imabigaich ukua makpibaat. Katilgiteamif 1978-mi ixisimakkabmiknik uqaqsimarut ieugiaktuat. NANA-tkuayaat ukua pisiplugich uvva utuqqanaat katipchababigaich Qikiqtabrufmun. Afalatiqabuurut kati'amif Savibummuamiglu Maqiugamiglu.Anausuglu suli Imbusribou, Uyubablu, Nasrualuglu ilaagun uqallaaplutifli tara ixagikmigaich. Qanuq immiieiajhat samma aglaksimaruq Naluabmiuraaqjugu ukunani makpibaani.
Maniixauraq uvva taimea, sivuniksriqirimik pakma taiyulikkafat, ieuich nanixiqaa uqautigiraqnibaat. Uqauttutaa tamarra immixxakhuni ieuich ixafich ieuujhatni, ukpiqnaqtuq. Taimma suli immiqsuksraq uqautigikkafan ixafa sivunibmi ittuq. Ukpibigaat ieuich ieugiaktuat.
Ieuich uvva uqabikkafich taatnatun aglakjugixxu mumikjugixxu pigivut. Ijuaqsabniaqsaqtum unniie atiniqman takku utuqqanaat tamatkua uqaqtuat piiqpagitxutif ukiibabikman. Ixisimanaqtuq aglaan tamarra uqautigikkafat.
Ixafat uvva itnabniqsuaq, "Kafiqsieiabataqtugut uvva sapibeallapiaqtuamik suli tusraaraksrafatnik. Ijuaqtuksramik, ijuaqsaqtaksramik uvva uqaqtugut. Taimma kafiqsieaqsixugu savaaksramik uvva uqaqtugut." Taamna uvva piqutigiplugu ixafa sivulliuplugu aglakkikput kafiqsieaqsixxaksaqjugu.
Maniixauraq uvva taamna Naluabmiut aggiqpaurabaluaqnagich animaniqsuq Kuuvaum Kafiani. Ixai samma ieuuniaqsimarut Qalami tamaani. Aanafa Qupilbuuraq aglaan uvva taatafa atiqsiebixxakkikput. Pieasrunik nukatchiaqabniqsuq abnanik. Atifich Imbusriq, Qajhaqpak suli Sieaana. Taapkua tara sivulliabigaich ieugiaktuat ieuich pakma nunaptitni. Ilaa suli Maniixauraq ixaukkaqsimaruq nanixiqaa Siixivifmixu, Kuuvafmixu, Aalaasum paafanixu tatqakma Canada-mun aglaan. Ixafich samma aglakkaluabivut.
Maniixaq napaqsraqabniqsuq ataramik. Tara una napmupayaaqami saagabigaa. Nappabaqnibaa napmun inillakami. Tallimat malbubuutaatni uvluni qixxiqillagaqnibaa taamna napaqsraq aasriitai uvluvak taatna surabasrufaqani uqaaqtujhaieaqhuni. Suli qixautiqaqhuni atubaqniqsuq uqaqami taavrumani uvlumi.Suli Maniixaq iqsiieeiqsuq. Afatkuuruatguuq suqutnabinbitchai. Takkuatnunguuq taatna piunbieeipxugich itnauraababigai. Taimani iglautigilugich pisubnaitmipchaqjugich afatkut. Mamiatlutifguuq tara ieuusria pakikkaluababigaat, afatkumikkun tuqutchukjugu, qaumavagitxuni takutlaitchaqnibaat ieuusria, taatna paqitlaitchaqnibaat.
Ieugiaktaat uvva itqaumanibaat Maniixablu Ayauniblu uqaqmaknik. Ayauniq una saffiruat afatkut ixafat Siixivifmiu. Uvvagguuq, "Iixibayabiptik uvva iisukkuptik," itnabnibik Ayauniblu atlalu afatkuq. Ayaunbum tara kiunibaa, "Qanuba iisabaitei sannibutauraksraqabisiruq." Tara ieuich katfut Qikiqtabrufmi uqqibeiqsut taatnautijhaknik. Itqaumanibaat ieugiaktaat ieuich. Uvva afatkubmigun, aanbuamigun, sapibisieiyaa taatnaqami Ayauniq.
Maniixam suli tautuktinnibai ieuich saffimik, ichuktaqhunixu ammieik aurabmi. Ieuich atnibealibanbitman ichuktum unnii qieibnibaat. Aglibnagguuq piibisiruq, itnabaqnibai. Ukpibitlaitchaqnibaat. Nagligiplugich abnat ibeiuqtuallu nunaaqqiuramlu, tupqumlu kiluani suli agliebaat, Maniixaq uqabaqniqsuq aglibnaq piibisieipxugu.
Arguaqtuqpagitxugu tara taimani iglautigiraqnibaat. Afatkuunipxugu suli isrummatigiraqnibaat naaggaqaa kinnabuaqsieipxugu itnaqhutif. Itnatchieik takku nalukkafiteik uqaqhuni taimani, sua manna qanusriq piiefaan. Uvva uqabikkafi tikiumaruat itniittut.
Aquppiuraaqsieabutifguuq iglilibisirut imbum qaafagun, umiakun iknibum ixitqusrian igliqtitafagun, naagga suli sixakunguuq aquppiuraabutif iglilibisikmiut iknibum suli igliqtitafanik. Tamarra qieibivut iivarruuligaat umiat suli tifmisuutit tifmirabaliqsuat.
Ieupiatguuq ieuuniajhat atlabubisiruq. Tamatkuagguuq qatiqtaat ieuich ixitqusriatnik ieuich ixitqusrieikkisirut. Taatnatun ieuunialibisirut. Tamarra immixxakhuni taatna sivuniksrami uqautigikkafa. Sumik puuyullapiaqtut, aalbuuganbiqmiut, Naluabmiutun uqautaatun uqaliqmiut. Uvva taatnasriq uqautigimagaa.
Aglibnaibisirubbuuq. Agliqsranbiqsut tamarra ieuich. Nutaat unnii ieugiaktaat nalugaat qanuutautilaafa taavruma agliqsriohum. Taimani agliqsrabniqsut apai takku kafiqsimaitxugu iluqaan atnibeaun. Suli ukpibiplugu afatkut uqautaat. Tamarra tamanna piixxaktuq.Uvvagguuq suli taamma taavani ieuich ieuuniabalaubumif, ukiuk malbuk tuvlibiik, taimma ieuich suli atubisiyaich. Uuyulibiiksraagguuq. Uvva tautunbitchivut suli taapkuak.
Taatnaqqaaqhunigguuq tara taavaniafa sixam uqautigisrutlaitchaa. Aliagigaagguuq. Aglaan uvva ixafat suli ieuich uqaqtuq, ixaatnigguuq uvluq tikitkisiruq, itna uvluq aviktikkatun. Taatna taavaniafa uqautigitlaitmiyaagguuq. Qanusriuvagguuqtai taimma sivuniksraq abviq puifanikpan.
Maniixaurakun uvva uqaqamif uqautigimagaat atlabuqtuaq ieuuniajhat Ieupiat, tara uqajhatun Maniixauram. Afatkuniglu, aalburuaniglu, abnaniglu ibeiuqtuanik tupqum, nunaaqqiuram kiluani, agliqsraqtuanik ieufnik, itnatchieik uqabniqsut. Puuyullaktuatun ixikkafiteik, nalukkafiteik nutaat pakma uqaqsimarut ixitchubipkabniaqjugu atlabujha ieuuniajipta. Aglaan uvva nafinnajhaieabnixugu taimani isrumatqunbitchivut agliqiruat.
Ami tara sakiqnapiabatami ieuich ieuuniabaluaqtut taimani. Ifmik ami itnatchimi ieuuniaqtuni sakiqnabumieaqtuq. Ilifisa aasrii qabagiliutiplugu ieuuniajiqtif. Naluplutif ivrumifa qabajibmik pakmatun. Aglaan itna saffipxutif, atnibeautiqpafmik piitmiut, niqipiam timigiksitlugich, kigutigiksitlugich, surabaalujhum sayaqaqtitlugich inniqsuat.
Iluqatif suli afatkut tamatkua pigiieeiabutif inbitchaluaqpaluktut. Ixafich naagga suli atnibeaqtuanik ikayuipxutiflu piraqniqsuat. Ieuich taimani ikayuutiraqniqsut avatmun, tamarra uixigaqtuallu, taataiqsuallu, suli naglifnaqtuat ikayubniuraqjugich piuraqaqamif.
Tamarra suapayaaq atlabullaktuq. Ixisimanaqtuq. Aasriie uvva ukunifa Maniixaurakun makpibarriuqapta, nafinnajha ieuuniajhum taimani aglafniablugu piebitchikput. Taatna tara uqajhatitun aglakkikput mumikougulu. Qanuq suli atlabujha ieuuniajhat uqabianiksimaitchuq uvani, atlani aglaa taimma uqaqamif uqabigaluaqsimaruq.
Maniixauram tara uqajhatun uvva pakma qabasrigaluaqtugut. Ieuuniajiqput atlabubaluaqtuq, tamarra Naluabmiutunlu ieuunialiqhuta, uqaliqhutalu piyaluaqtugut, aglaan sakiqnaq itchugaaqtuq. Tamarra ieuich isrumaaluum quviasruktinbibai, ieuich timigiixiqsut siibeaqtaaqtuliqpagitxutif, qaunagiuranbiqougu nibitchaqtif, ittuavaajjaliqpagitxutiflu. Tamarra naagga affugaurat pioiksrafat, nunamlu afalajha atanniqsubnialiqmiyaat atlat ieuich taavakfa. Nanixiqaa naagga miqutmiyaat nuna. Ivrumifa isrumauranbiqsut ieuich, ieulluatat taaffaum afalaliqjugixxu.
Sua iluqaan aglanbitchaluabikput tasramma aglaan agliqilugu pikpatruf aglaktuat, ixioiksrafat uvva piqutigiplugu makpibarriuqtugut, suli piqutigiplugich uqaqtut utuqqanaat. Taimma una ieuum ijuatmun ieuuniajiksrafa isrumagiplugu uqaqtut. Sivviuraq taimea uqabaqtuq, uvvagguuq nakuuruafalu Ieupiat ieuuniajhatnie, nakuuruafalu Naluabmiut ieuuniajhatnie katillugik pikpaknik nakuutlukkayaqtuq. Taamna isrummatigilugu piyupta nakuuruq uvva. Quyanaqtusri ilipsi agliqinialiqsuani Ieupiatun. Sivutmuufurabniabumuusri.
The materials compiled in this book, Maniixaq, came from various sources, the chief source being the tape-recorded discussion on Maniixaq by the elders of the Nana Region of Alaska. These elders met during the 1978 Nana Elders Conference in Kotzebue. This conference was under the direction of Rachael Craig and Mary Schaeffer. It was funded partly by the Nana Native Corporation and the Alaska Humanities Forum.
Other sources of information came from the late Beatrice Anausuk Mouse of Noorvik, Elmer Ballot of Selawik, and Robert Cleveland of Ambler. Mrs. Mouse was first taped by Nita Towarak under the Mauneluk Teachers Making Books Program of 1976-1977 funded by Title IV Part B, and then by Angeline Newlin in 1980 for the National Bilingual Materials Development Center. Mr. Ballot recorded his own information on Maniixaq under the Mauneluk Cultural Heritage Program of 1975-1976 funded by the Johnson O'Malley Program. This program was directed by Hannah Loon. Fay Foster's information was recorded by Ruth Ramoth-Sampson in 1981, and Robert Cleveland's account was recorded at Black River in 1965 by the late Don Charles Foote. Mr. Foote was working on the "Human Geographical Studies in Northwestern Arctic Alaska: The Point Hope and Upper Kobuk River Projects, 1965" when he made the recording by Robert Cleveland. Mr. Foote's recordings were made available to the Center by the University of Alaska Archives in Fairbanks, Alaska.
Maniixaq is the name of a man that is held in very high regard by the older Iñupiat Eskimos of the Northwest Arctic. He was more commonly known as Maniixauraq, and to some of the elders in the area, he was an Eskimo prophet. They speak of him with reverence and admiration. Many believe him and in the fulfillment of his prophecies in this day and age.
This book presents the information which the Center has on Maniixaq transcribed and translated exactly as the elders have given it. There has been no attempt made to edit any of the discussions as many of the contributors have passed away. The materials are presented here for you, the reader, to read and reach your own conclusions about Maniixaq. You will find the accounts to be repetitious, but as you read each variant of Maniixaq's activities and teachings, you will acquire new information which will add to your knowledge of the whole subject.
There may be other information on Maniixaq which has not been recorded and included in this book such as the lost cassette tape on Maniixaq filled by Susie Stocking. It is hoped that this book will inspire you to search for the rest of the missing information. For now, however, we would like to follow the admonishment of one of the elders, "We are discussing a complicated subject . . . It should be presented in a clear and easily understandable manner so that everyone will know," by presenting below a summary of the major events pertaining to Maniixaq. For more detailed explanations of each event, read the accounts that are in the body of this book:
SUMMARY OF MAJOR EVENTS
Prophecies that have been fulfilled to date:
Prophecies that are yet to be fulfilled:
Whenever Maniixaq mentioned this last prophecy, he became despondent. When asked what would follow after that day, he refused to discuss it. Some people felt that he had no knowledge of what would follow, and others believed that he was more pessimistic and probably felt very apprehensive of what the future held for all the people and that was why he did not talk about it much.
A Word of Caution
Please remember when you read the accounts in this book that the contributors were speaking exclusively of Maniixaq and the particular aspects of Eskimo life which were to be affected by his prophecies. Do not assume that oppression and fear was everyone's lot or that all shamanistic powers were evil. Some shamans served mainly as healers, and there were very good cultural activities carried out by the people as a whole. These activities included the sharing of food, the assistance given to the needy, the widows, the orphans, and the aged, and the great respect awarded to the elders because of their age, their knowledge and experience in surviving in a harsh, and often hostile, arctic environment.
It was not our intention to portray the early Ieupiaq lifestyle as being all dismal. We have merely given you what the elders have recorded concerning the changes that Maniixaq predicted will take place. Other changes experienced by the Iñupiat are not mentioned here. They have been discussed, however, by the elders under such topics as the "Process of Cultural Change" which we hope to get printed in book form in the near future.
It is good to keep in mind Maniixaq's prophecy of life getting easier to live in our day and age due to the advancements of technology, but it is better to think also of the results of living this easier life: the deterioration of good health due to unbalanced diet, lack of exercise, the drinking of alcoholic beverages because of the availability of increased stress-related activities and increased leisure time. There are also the problems related to the increased exploitation and pollution of the land. We must consider these things very carefully and try to influence for the better the changes that affect our lives.
Maniixaq made his predictions and some of these, according to the elders, have been fulfilled during their life here on this planet. Others of Maniixaq's predictions are expected to be fulfilled within the lifetime of this generation and future generations. It is the wish of the elders that the younger people will strive, not only to understand Maniixaq's predictions and their implications, but to learn about the good qualities of both cultures. This knowledge in turn should enable everyone to live a well integrated and satisfying life.
The following accounts are listed under the name of the contributor. Subheadings are given for each account for no other reason than to facilitate the reading of the material. We hope that you will enjoy reading this book on Maniixaq, a man full of compassion for his people, and regarded as a prophet of God by them.
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